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Pollination and Floral Ecology$
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Pat Willmer

Print publication date: 2011

Print ISBN-13: 9780691128610

Published to Princeton Scholarship Online: October 2017

DOI: 10.23943/princeton/9780691128610.001.0001

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Pollination by Bees

Pollination by Bees

Chapter:
(p.378) Chapter 18 Pollination by Bees
Source:
Pollination and Floral Ecology
Author(s):

Pat Willmer

Publisher:
Princeton University Press
DOI:10.23943/princeton/9780691128610.003.0018

This chapter considers pollination by bees, or melittophily. The bee flower syndrome involves flowers that have medium to long corolla tubes, often pendant, usually zygomorphic (i.e., bilaterally symmetrical rather than radial), commonly with a landing platform with complex texture or ridging so that a bee can hang on easily, and often arranged in spiked inflorescences. The flowers typically open in the early morning and offer their main rewards before midday, although a few are particularly rewarding in the evenings. The chapter begins with a discussion of the bee’s feeding apparatus and feeding methods, along with sensory systems and bee perception of flowers. It then examines the effects of sociality on bees’ flower-visiting patterns as well as behavior and learning in flower-visiting bees. Finally, it analyzes six melittophily types namely: solitary bees, carpenter bees, euglossine bees, bumblebees, stingless bees, and honeybees.

Keywords:   bee pollination, bees, melittophily, flower, feeding apparatus, sociality, behavior, learning, honeybee, bumblebee

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