This chapter follows the long history of commercial relations between many British ports and Bordeaux. It begins by examining the long-run changes in wine production and trade during the nineteenth century and the organization of wine production in the region. After a period of prosperity that lasted from the mid-1850s to the early 1880s, there followed three decades of depression. Moreover, information problems for consumers of fine wines were reduced by the 1855 classification, but the growth in market power and economic independence of the leading estates was checked in the late nineteenth century. Finally, small growers successfully used their political voice to achieve legislation to establish a regional appellation, which limited to wines of the Gironde the right to carry the Bordeaux brand.
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