This concluding chapter takes a brief look at the changes that took place among traditional producer countries in Europe and then offers some comments concerning the obstacles facing the producers in the New World. It finishes with reflections on the extent to which the organization of the wine industry today is the result of changes that took place before 1914. These changes were not uniform, and by 1914 major differences were found in the organization of production and marketing of commodity wines in places as far-flung as France, California, South Australia, and Mendoza. Even within a country such as France, new and differing institutions had appeared that altered market incentives for growers, winemakers, and merchants in places such as Bordeaux, Reims, and Montpellier.
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