This chapter turns to metoikoi, foreigners who, unlike xenoi, were official residents of Athens, rather than just passing through. In its broad sense, the term metoikos encompassed two subcategories of resident alien, distinguished from each other not only legally but also socially: (i) freeborn foreigners (metoikoi or metics in the narrow sense); and (ii) freed slaves, most likely those who were not (or who were no longer) bound to their previous masters. These two subcategories of metic share a number of traits, the most obvious of which was their non-Athenian origin. Both subgroups of metic also had many of the rights and obligations of citizens. They were expected to obey the city's laws and were obligated to perform military service.
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