This chapter focuses on naturalized citizens. It argues that although naturalized citizens shared most of the privileges and duties of natural-born citizens in the sacral, political, and military spheres, they differed in a few important respects. For example, at least as early as 427 BCE (and maybe earlier), a naturalized citizen could not hold an Athenian priesthood or any of the nine archonships. His sons, however, faced no limitations on the priesthoods they could hold, provided that they were born from an Athenian citizen mother. Moreover, in ca. 334 BCE certain phratries, probably ones with hereditary priesthoods, became closed to naturalized citizens. Apart from these restrictions, however, the naturalized citizen was nearly indistinguishable from the natural-born citizen in his opportunities for the performance of civic roles. The primary way in which naturalized citizens in Athens were distinguished from natural-born citizens was their social status.
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