This concluding chapter provides some final insights into the history surrounding the Problem of Paganism. First, the chapter considers how the progress of the Middle Ages and the Renaissance in Europe would likewise lead to a natural progression of attitudes from medieval severity to Early Modern toleration. The reality, as the chapter shows, defies such expectations, and this unchangingness is remarkable, because according to almost every historical account, the three centuries involved were a time of epochal change, of the transition to what is called ‘modernity’, and the most emblematic event of the new era, Columbus's voyages, had a direct bearing on the Problem of Paganism. After expounding on this point, the chapter suggests a new way of approaching philosophy from the Long Middle Ages — ‘Historical Synthesis’.
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