This chapter focuses on traditional energy sources in Europe. It first provides an overview of energy sources and energy consumption in premodern Europe before discussing organic energy sources and agricultures, looking in particular at food demand, a global perspective on the European agriculture, intensification and population, working animals, animal power, forests, firewood consumption, and coal and peat as fuels. The chapter proceeds by considering three non-organic energy sources, namely: gunpowder, water, and wind. Finally, it describes seven long-run propositions regarding Europe's energy system in an economic context: predominance of reproducible sources; energy supply and demand are closely related to climate; transport costs are a major barrier to growth; the economy is limited by low power; high energy intensity and low energy productivity; a diffuse geography of energy; and higher European than non-European consumption of energy.
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