This chapter compares the behavior of fans before and after games who were subject to acts of hooliganism, vandalism, or criminal damage, including those who experienced disturbances and violent confrontations among spectators. It examines model predictions, among these are that frequent consumers of soccer matches should respond less to acts of violence (hooliganism, vandalism, and criminal damage) than occasional consumers of football matches; that violence should have a differential effect across singles versus married individuals; that fans with greater cognitive ability should respond less to acts of violence, hooliganism, and vandalism than those with lower cognitive ability; and that the response to acts of violence, hooliganism, and vandalism should be lower in games that end after midnight than in games that end before midnight because of differences in media coverage.
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