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The Makings of Indonesian IslamOrientalism and the Narration of a Sufi Past$
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Michael Laffan

Print publication date: 2011

Print ISBN-13: 9780691145303

Published to Princeton Scholarship Online: October 2017

DOI: 10.23943/princeton/9780691145303.001.0001

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Reform and the Widening Muslim Sphere, 1800–1890

Reform and the Widening Muslim Sphere, 1800–1890

(p.40) Chapter Three Reform and the Widening Muslim Sphere, 1800–1890
The Makings of Indonesian Islam

Michael Laffan

Princeton University Press

This chapter discusses the rise, largely in the nineteenth century, of a new form of populist authority that expanded the scope of Islamic activity beyond the reach of ever more marginalized courts. Indonesian Islam, supported in some instances by a growing native economy, moves away from court-mandated orthodoxy towards a closer connection with Mecca and the Middle East mediated by independent teachers. In some instances, these independent religious masters were able to prosper and to adapt to new modes of Sufi organization that saw the adoption of the tariqas in favor in the Ottoman Empire. By the century's end, the Naqshbandis in particular were exploring new ways of broadening their constituencies. These included somewhat controversial short-courses of instruction and the dissemination of printed materials that were increasingly available to a pesantren-schooled section of the public.

Keywords:   populist authority, Islamic activity, marginalized courts, Indonesian Islam, independent religious masters, Sufi organization, tariqas, Ottoman Empire, Naqshbandis, pesantren

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