This chapter addresses why animals have evolved different numbers, ranges, and placements of spectral channels in their color-vision systems. It also examines the factors, such as water transmission, visual task, phylogeny, and activity patterns, that drive the evolution of such diverse modes of seeing color. Even in the absence of any color sense, trees are still visible, as most of the information in natural scenes can be gained from achromatic cues alone. Color vision, however, gives an animal more information, allowing it to make quicker and more informed decisions. The chapter attempts to disentangle man's experience of color from that of other animals to provide an objective measure of what color vision is and how evolution has molded its variety of forms.
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