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Three Worlds of Relief
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Three Worlds of Relief: Race, Immigration, and the American Welfare State from the Progressive Era to the New Deal

Cybelle Fox


This book examines the role of race and immigration in the development of the American social welfare system by comparing how blacks, Mexicans, and European immigrants were treated by welfare policies during the Progressive Era and the New Deal. Taking readers from the turn of the twentieth century to the dark days of the Depression, the book finds that, despite rampant nativism, European immigrants received generous access to social welfare programs. The communities in which they lived invested heavily in relief. Social workers protected them from snooping immigration agents, and ensured that ... More

Keywords: race, immigration, American social welfare, social welfare system, Progressive Era, New Deal, European immigrants, black immigrants, Mexican immigrants

Bibliographic Information

Print publication date: 2012 Print ISBN-13: 9780691152233
Published to Princeton Scholarship Online: October 2017 DOI:10.23943/princeton/9780691152233.001.0001


Affiliations are at time of print publication.

Cybelle Fox, author
University of California, Berkeley