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Three Worlds of ReliefRace, Immigration, and the American Welfare State from the Progressive Era to the New Deal$
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Cybelle Fox

Print publication date: 2012

Print ISBN-13: 9780691152233

Published to Princeton Scholarship Online: October 2017

DOI: 10.23943/princeton/9780691152233.001.0001

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The Boundaries of Social Citizenship

The Boundaries of Social Citizenship

Chapter:
(p.281) Chapter 11 The Boundaries of Social Citizenship
Source:
Three Worlds of Relief
Author(s):

Cybelle Fox

Publisher:
Princeton University Press
DOI:10.23943/princeton/9780691152233.003.0011

This concluding chapter summarizes the principal findings and offers some reflections on the boundaries of social citizenship and the role of race and immigration in American social welfare provision. Taken together, the treatment of blacks, Mexicans, and European immigrants provides a nuanced picture of how race, citizenship, and nativity served as dividing lines between those who were judged worthy of assistance and those who were not. Despite persistent and widespread nativism, European immigrants were included within the boundaries of social citizenship while Mexicans were left on the periphery, granted limited inclusion at times, completely excluded at other times, and in some instances expelled from the nation entirely. Ultimately, the different treatment of blacks, European immigrants and Mexicans reflected the worlds each group inhabited—worlds bound by both regional political economies and each group's social position.

Keywords:   social citizenship, race, immigration, American social welfare, black immigrants, Mexican immigrants, European immigrants, nativism, regional political economies, social position

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