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Monitoring DemocracyWhen International Election Observation Works, and Why It Often Fails$
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Judith G. Kelley

Print publication date: 2012

Print ISBN-13: 9780691152776

Published to Princeton Scholarship Online: October 2017

DOI: 10.23943/princeton/9780691152776.001.0001

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The Shadow Market

The Shadow Market

(p.43) Chapter 3 The Shadow Market
Monitoring Democracy

Judith G. Kelley

Princeton University Press

This chapter examines whether monitoring organizations actually provide credible information about elections. The analysis suggests that not all organizations do and certainly not all of the time. The evidence points to the existence of a shadow market in which organizations are sometimes intentionally too lenient, and in which some organizations are consistently more lenient than others. Thus, monitors sometimes endorse elections that do not meet common international standards. Moreover, organizations have different propensities to criticize elections, with several of the more lenient organizations such as the CIS, SADC, and the Electoral Institute of Southern Africa (EISA) having entered the field of monitoring only in the end of the 1990s or later.

Keywords:   monitoring organizations, elections, shadow market, international standards, election monitoring

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