# Hybrid Decentralized Maximum Entropy Control for Large-Scale Systems

# Hybrid Decentralized Maximum Entropy Control for Large-Scale Systems

This chapter introduces a novel class of fixed-order, energy- and entropy-based hybrid decentralized controllers for achieving enhanced energy dissipation in large-scale vector lossless and vector dissipative systems based on subsystem decomposition. These dynamic decentralized controllers combine a logical switching architecture with continuous dynamics to guarantee that the system plant energy is strictly decreasing across switchings. The general framework leads to hybrid closed-loop systems described by impulsive differential equations. The chapter also constructs hybrid dynamic controllers that guarantee that each subsystem-subcontroller pair of the hybrid closed-loop system is consistent with basic thermodynamic principles. Special cases of energy-based hybrid controllers involving state-dependent switching are described, and several illustrative examples are given and an experimental test bed is designed to demonstrate the efficacy of the proposed approach.

*Keywords:*
hybrid decentralized controller, subsystem decomposition, energy dissipation, vector lossless system, vector dissipative system, plant energy, hybrid closed-loop system, impulsive differential equations, hybrid dynamic controller, state-dependent switching

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