This chapter discusses how there are four general factors that contribute to the Sun's potential role in variations in the Earth's climate. First, the fusion processes in the solar core determine the solar luminosity and hence the base level of radiation impinging on the Earth. Second, the presence of the solar magnetic field leads to radiation at ultraviolet (UV), extreme ultraviolet (EUV), and X-ray wavelengths which can affect certain layers of the atmosphere. Third, the variability of the magnetic field over a 22-year cycle leads to significant changes in the radiative output at some wavelengths. Finally, the interplanetary manifestation of the outer solar atmosphere (the solar wind) interacts with the terrestrial magnetic field, leading to effects commonly called space weather.
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