This chapter provides an introduction to the basic definitions and properties of Mumford-Tate groups in both the case of Hodge structures and of mixed Hodge structures. Hodge structures of weight n are sometimes called pure Hodge structures, and the term “Hodge structure” then refers to a direct sum of pure Hodge structures. The chapter presents three definitions of a Hodge structure of weight n, given in historical order. In the first definition, a Hodge structure of weight n is given by a Hodge decomposition; in the second, it is given by a Hodge filtration; in the third, it is given by a homomorphism of ℝ-algebraic groups. In the first two definitions, n is assumed to be positive and the p,q's in the definitions are non-negative. In the third definition, n and p,q are arbitrary. For the third definition, the Deligne torus integers are used.
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