The Encyclopaedia of Islam, new edition. Ed. Hamilton A. R. Gibb et al. Leiden: Brill, 1954–2004, and online.
大正新修大藏經 Ed. Takakusu Junjirō, Watanabe Kaigyoku, et al. Tokyo: Taishō Issaikyō Kankōkai, 1924–1932, and online.
Transcription of non-European scripts
The standard transcription used by most Arabists today is followed. The consonants are transcribed: ‘ (‘alif and ḥamza), b, t, th, j, ḥ, kh, d, dh, r, z, s, sh, ṣ, ḍ, t., ẓ, ‘ (‘ayn), gh, q, k, l, m, n, h, w, y. The vowels are transcribed: a, ā; i, ī; u, ū.
Chinese names, book titles, and similar items are transcribed in the traditional modified Wade-Giles system used by many Sinologists. The Pinyin system is used only for transcription of Chinese syllables or words cited as such.
There is no standard transcription system for any variety of Tibetan. Classical Tibetan is transcribed conventionally here according to a version (Beckwith 1979) of the systems used by scholars who work on canonical Buddhist texts written in Classical Tibetan. The consonants are transcribed: k, kh, g, no, c, ch, j, ñ, t, th, d, n, p, ph, b, m, ts, tsh, dz, w, ź, z, ‘, y, r, l, ś, s, h, – (the last consonant, a glottal stop [ʔ], is normally not transcribed). The vowels are transcribed a, i, u, e, o. Suffix morphemes of words are written as part of the word, without hyphens, as is a preceding syllable of a compound word when it ends in a vowel; in all other cases, when a syllable in a compound ends in a consonant it is separated from the following syllable by a hyphen. (p.xviii)