This chapter examines how engagement with nongovernmental organizations (NGOs)—such as local chapters of multinational human rights organizations and especially homegrown NGOs—can lead to localization. It first explains how localization through NGOs actually leads to legitimacy and the congruence of local with international policies around human rights. It then considers what NGOs actually do and put their operations into perspective and highlights some of the troubles that arise when NGOs play these roles. It also argues why there is value to legitimizing the use of state power (and thus advocacy) in a local context and evaluates practical strategies that foreign stewards can adopt to localize how they wield their power for human rights. The chapter argues that NGOs can directly assist in implementing foreign-backed punishments, rewards, and other forms of diplomacy for human rights promotion, while improving the possibility that those policies resonate with local issues, customs, and practices.
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