This chapter illustrates how republican administrations after 1920 continued the intervention policy, even though Warren Harding openly campaigned against it in his 1920 presidential run. It shows how Harding tried and failed to extricate the United States from the interventions and receiverships in Central America, the Caribbean, and Liberia. Calvin Coolidge succeeded Harding after his death in 1923, and the Coolidge administration was equally ambivalent. Nevertheless, Coolidge failed to resist pressure to intervene on behalf of U.S. investors. By 1927, he would publicly state that there is a distinct and binding obligation on the part of self-respecting governments to afford protection to the persons and property of their citizens, wherever they may be.
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