This chapter examines how the Muslim question intersects with the question of equality. In The Law of Peoples, John Rawls outlined a plan for justice among peoples. The Law of Peoples focuses primarily on one difference and division, that between Islam and the West. Rawls gives an imagined example of a non-liberal Muslim people he calls Kazanistan. In Rawls' account, Muslims are the antithesis of liberalism. The chapter considers how the identification of Islam with hierarchy (albeit “decent” hierarchy) in Rawls' Kazanistan forecloses one of the most powerful critical challenges raised by the Muslim question: the question of equality. It also discusses Sayyid Qutb's views, articulated in Social Justice and Islam.
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