This chapter examines the Iranian state's attempts over the past century to eliminate the practices of rammals as threats to public order. Rammals are known to resist regulation by the state, as can be seen in the spatial location of their practices. There are no shops or businesses where occult specialists may legitimately offer their services for a fee. They often change their addresses to avoid state surveillance. The chapter considers the criminalization of the occult professions as well as the intensification of punishments for occult practitioners, arguing that the conception of rational civil order under the Islamic Republic is linked to the moral leadership of the ulama. It also discusses the evolution of the legal framework for occult professions, which are now sometimes treated as fraud.
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