This conclusion summarizes the book's main arguments about metaphysical exploration, showing that, far from being a marginal activity, it has comprised a crucial dimension of contemporary religious thought and practice in Iran. The book has examined how, for the highest-ranking Shiʻi ulama, the occult could not be easily dismissed as either sinful or fraudulent, and how the danger of charlatanry and vice prompted these leaders to recommend virtuous caution. It has also discussed rationality and the three aspects of rationalization found in most forms of metaphysical inquiry—demarcating and excluding superstition, engaging with science as a resource, and instrumentalizing the metaphysical in the service of moral reform.
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