*John Stillwell*

- Published in print:
- 2019
- Published Online:
- September 2020
- ISBN:
- 9780691197296
- eISBN:
- 9780691200316
- Item type:
- book

- Publisher:
- Princeton University Press
- DOI:
- 10.23943/princeton/9780691197296.001.0001
- Subject:
- Mathematics, Computational Mathematics / Optimization

Reverse mathematics is a new field that seeks to find the axioms needed to prove given theorems. Reverse mathematics began as a technical field of mathematical logic, but its main ideas have ...
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Reverse mathematics is a new field that seeks to find the axioms needed to prove given theorems. Reverse mathematics began as a technical field of mathematical logic, but its main ideas have precedents in the ancient field of geometry and the early twentieth-century field of set theory. This book offers a historical and representative view, emphasizing basic analysis and giving a novel approach to logic. It concludes that mathematics is an arena where theorems cannot always be proved outright, but in which all of their logical equivalents can be found. This creates the possibility of reverse mathematics, where one seeks equivalents that are suitable as axioms. By using a minimum of mathematical logic in a well-motivated way, the book will engage advanced undergraduates and all mathematicians interested in the foundations of mathematics.Less

Reverse mathematics is a new field that seeks to find the axioms needed to prove given theorems. Reverse mathematics began as a technical field of mathematical logic, but its main ideas have precedents in the ancient field of geometry and the early twentieth-century field of set theory. This book offers a historical and representative view, emphasizing basic analysis and giving a novel approach to logic. It concludes that mathematics is an arena where theorems cannot always be proved outright, but in which all of their logical equivalents can be found. This creates the possibility of reverse mathematics, where one seeks equivalents that are suitable as axioms. By using a minimum of mathematical logic in a well-motivated way, the book will engage advanced undergraduates and all mathematicians interested in the foundations of mathematics.

*Matthias Aschenbrenner, Lou van den Dries, and Joris van der Hoeven*

- Published in print:
- 2017
- Published Online:
- October 2017
- ISBN:
- 9780691175423
- eISBN:
- 9781400885411
- Item type:
- book

- Publisher:
- Princeton University Press
- DOI:
- 10.23943/princeton/9780691175423.001.0001
- Subject:
- Mathematics, Computational Mathematics / Optimization

Asymptotic differential algebra seeks to understand the solutions of differential equations and their asymptotics from an algebraic point of view. The differential field of transseries plays a ...
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Asymptotic differential algebra seeks to understand the solutions of differential equations and their asymptotics from an algebraic point of view. The differential field of transseries plays a central role in the subject. Besides powers of the variable, these series may contain exponential and logarithmic terms. Over the last thirty years, transseries emerged variously as super-exact asymptotic expansions of return maps of analytic vector fields, in connection with Tarski's problem on the field of reals with exponentiation, and in mathematical physics. Their formal nature also makes them suitable for machine computations in computer algebra systems. This book validates the intuition that the differential field of transseries is a universal domain for asymptotic differential algebra. It does so by establishing in the realm of transseries a complete elimination theory for systems of algebraic differential equations with asymptotic side conditions. Beginning with background chapters on valuations and differential algebra, the book goes on to develop the basic theory of valued differential fields, including a notion of differential-henselianity. Next, H-fields are singled out among ordered valued differential fields to provide an algebraic setting for the common properties of Hardy fields and the differential field of transseries. The study of their extensions culminates in an analogue of the algebraic closure of a field: the Newton–Liouville closure of an H-field. This paves the way to a quantifier elimination with interesting consequences.Less

Asymptotic differential algebra seeks to understand the solutions of differential equations and their asymptotics from an algebraic point of view. The differential field of transseries plays a central role in the subject. Besides powers of the variable, these series may contain exponential and logarithmic terms. Over the last thirty years, transseries emerged variously as super-exact asymptotic expansions of return maps of analytic vector fields, in connection with Tarski's problem on the field of reals with exponentiation, and in mathematical physics. Their formal nature also makes them suitable for machine computations in computer algebra systems. This book validates the intuition that the differential field of transseries is a universal domain for asymptotic differential algebra. It does so by establishing in the realm of transseries a complete elimination theory for systems of algebraic differential equations with asymptotic side conditions. Beginning with background chapters on valuations and differential algebra, the book goes on to develop the basic theory of valued differential fields, including a notion of differential-henselianity. Next, *H*-fields are singled out among ordered valued differential fields to provide an algebraic setting for the common properties of Hardy fields and the differential field of transseries. The study of their extensions culminates in an analogue of the algebraic closure of a field: the Newton–Liouville closure of an *H*-field. This paves the way to a quantifier elimination with interesting consequences.

*Philip Isett*

- Published in print:
- 2017
- Published Online:
- October 2017
- ISBN:
- 9780691174822
- eISBN:
- 9781400885428
- Item type:
- book

- Publisher:
- Princeton University Press
- DOI:
- 10.23943/princeton/9780691174822.001.0001
- Subject:
- Mathematics, Computational Mathematics / Optimization

Motivated by the theory of turbulence in fluids, the physicist and chemist Lars Onsager conjectured in 1949 that weak solutions to the incompressible Euler equations might fail to conserve energy if ...
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Motivated by the theory of turbulence in fluids, the physicist and chemist Lars Onsager conjectured in 1949 that weak solutions to the incompressible Euler equations might fail to conserve energy if their spatial regularity was below 1/3-Hölder. This book uses the method of convex integration to achieve the best-known results regarding nonuniqueness of solutions and Onsager's conjecture. Focusing on the intuition behind the method, the ideas introduced now play a pivotal role in the ongoing study of weak solutions to fluid dynamics equations. The construction itself—an intricate algorithm with hidden symmetries—mixes together transport equations, algebra, the method of nonstationary phase, underdetermined partial differential equations (PDEs), and specially designed high-frequency waves built using nonlinear phase functions. The powerful “Main Lemma”—used here to construct nonzero solutions with compact support in time and to prove nonuniqueness of solutions to the initial value problem—has been extended to a broad range of applications that are surveyed in the appendix. Appropriate for students and researchers studying nonlinear PDEs, this book aims to be as robust as possible and pinpoints the main difficulties that presently stand in the way of a full solution to Onsager's conjecture.Less

Motivated by the theory of turbulence in fluids, the physicist and chemist Lars Onsager conjectured in 1949 that weak solutions to the incompressible Euler equations might fail to conserve energy if their spatial regularity was below 1/3-Hölder. This book uses the method of convex integration to achieve the best-known results regarding nonuniqueness of solutions and Onsager's conjecture. Focusing on the intuition behind the method, the ideas introduced now play a pivotal role in the ongoing study of weak solutions to fluid dynamics equations. The construction itself—an intricate algorithm with hidden symmetries—mixes together transport equations, algebra, the method of nonstationary phase, underdetermined partial differential equations (PDEs), and specially designed high-frequency waves built using nonlinear phase functions. The powerful “Main Lemma”—used here to construct nonzero solutions with compact support in time and to prove nonuniqueness of solutions to the initial value problem—has been extended to a broad range of applications that are surveyed in the appendix. Appropriate for students and researchers studying nonlinear PDEs, this book aims to be as robust as possible and pinpoints the main difficulties that presently stand in the way of a full solution to Onsager's conjecture.

*Mihály Bakonyi and Hugo J. Woerdeman*

- Published in print:
- 2011
- Published Online:
- October 2017
- ISBN:
- 9780691128894
- eISBN:
- 9781400840595
- Item type:
- book

- Publisher:
- Princeton University Press
- DOI:
- 10.23943/princeton/9780691128894.001.0001
- Subject:
- Mathematics, Computational Mathematics / Optimization

Intensive research in matrix completions, moments, and sums of Hermitian squares has yielded a multitude of results in recent decades. This book provides a comprehensive account of this quickly ...
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Intensive research in matrix completions, moments, and sums of Hermitian squares has yielded a multitude of results in recent decades. This book provides a comprehensive account of this quickly developing area of mathematics and applications and gives complete proofs of many recently solved problems. With MATLAB codes and more than two hundred exercises, the book is ideal for a special topics course for graduate or advanced undergraduate students in mathematics or engineering, and will also be a valuable resource for researchers. Often driven by questions from signal processing, control theory, and quantum information, the subject of this book has inspired mathematicians from many subdisciplines, including linear algebra, operator theory, measure theory, and complex function theory. In turn, the applications are being pursued by researchers in areas such as electrical engineering, computer science, and physics. The book is self-contained, has many examples, and for the most part requires only a basic background in undergraduate mathematics, primarily linear algebra and some complex analysis. The book also includes an extensive discussion of the literature, with close to six hundred references from books and journals from a wide variety of disciplines.Less

Intensive research in matrix completions, moments, and sums of Hermitian squares has yielded a multitude of results in recent decades. This book provides a comprehensive account of this quickly developing area of mathematics and applications and gives complete proofs of many recently solved problems. With MATLAB codes and more than two hundred exercises, the book is ideal for a special topics course for graduate or advanced undergraduate students in mathematics or engineering, and will also be a valuable resource for researchers. Often driven by questions from signal processing, control theory, and quantum information, the subject of this book has inspired mathematicians from many subdisciplines, including linear algebra, operator theory, measure theory, and complex function theory. In turn, the applications are being pursued by researchers in areas such as electrical engineering, computer science, and physics. The book is self-contained, has many examples, and for the most part requires only a basic background in undergraduate mathematics, primarily linear algebra and some complex analysis. The book also includes an extensive discussion of the literature, with close to six hundred references from books and journals from a wide variety of disciplines.