This concluding chapter discusses the universal aspirations of contemporary human rights and humanitarian movements and the problems that they face. The human rights movement aims to realize the assertion in the 1948 United Nations Universal Declaration of Human Rights that “all human beings are born free and equal in dignity and rights.” Meanwhile, humanitarianism tends to focus on suffering and the prevention or amelioration of physical harm. Both movements, however, are predicated on ethical universality in principle and its global reach in practice. That is, since ethical values, the sentiments they should induce, and the obligations they impose pertain to all humans, so too should ethical agency be indifferent to any distinctions of culture, ethnicity, religion, gender, age, or political divisions.
Keywords: human rights movement, humanitarian movements, Universal Declaration of Human Rights, humanitarianism, ethical universality, ethical values, ethical agency