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Tolan, J., Veinstein, G., Laurens, H., & Todd, J. (2012-11-04). The Age of Empire. In Europe and the Islamic World: A History. : Princeton University Press. Retrieved 19 Sep. 2021, from https://princeton.universitypressscholarship.com/view/10.23943/princeton/9780691147055.001.0001/upso-9780691147055-chapter-015.