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Quantal Response EquilibriumA Stochastic Theory of Games$
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Jacob K. Goeree, Charles A. Holt, and Thomas R. Palfrey

Print publication date: 2016

Print ISBN-13: 9780691124230

Published to Princeton Scholarship Online: January 2018

DOI: 10.23943/princeton/9780691124230.001.0001

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(p.88) 4 Heterogeneity
Quantal Response Equilibrium

Jacob K. Goeree

Charles A. Holt

Thomas R. Palfrey

Princeton University Press

Players have different skills, which has implications for the degree to which they make errors. Low-skill hitters in baseball often swing at bad pitches, beginning skiers frequently fall for no apparent reason, and children often lose at tic-tac-toe. At the other extreme, there are brilliant chess players, bargainers, and litigators who seem to know exactly what move to make or offer to decline. From a quantal response equilibrium (QRE) perspective, these skill levels can be modeled in terms of variation in error rates or in responsiveness of quantal response functions. This chapter explores issues related to individual heterogeneity with respect to player error rates. It also describes some extensions of QRE that relax the assumption that player expectations about the choice behavior of other players are correct. For example, in games that are played only once, players are not able to learn from others' prior decisions, and expectations must be based on introspection. The chapter develops the implications of noisy introspection embedded in a model of iterated thinking.

Keywords:   player skills, quantal response equilibrium, QRE, skill heterogeneity, noisy introspection

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