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Pollination and Floral Ecology$
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Pat Willmer

Print publication date: 2011

Print ISBN-13: 9780691128610

Published to Princeton Scholarship Online: October 2017

DOI: 10.23943/princeton/9780691128610.001.0001

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PRINTED FROM PRINCETON SCHOLARSHIP ONLINE (www.princeton.universitypressscholarship.com). (c) Copyright Princeton University Press, 2021. All Rights Reserved. An individual user may print out a PDF of a single chapter of a monograph in PRSO for personal use.date: 26 September 2021

Pollination by Bees

Pollination by Bees

(p.378) Chapter 18 Pollination by Bees
Pollination and Floral Ecology

Pat Willmer

Princeton University Press

This chapter considers pollination by bees, or melittophily. The bee flower syndrome involves flowers that have medium to long corolla tubes, often pendant, usually zygomorphic (i.e., bilaterally symmetrical rather than radial), commonly with a landing platform with complex texture or ridging so that a bee can hang on easily, and often arranged in spiked inflorescences. The flowers typically open in the early morning and offer their main rewards before midday, although a few are particularly rewarding in the evenings. The chapter begins with a discussion of the bee’s feeding apparatus and feeding methods, along with sensory systems and bee perception of flowers. It then examines the effects of sociality on bees’ flower-visiting patterns as well as behavior and learning in flower-visiting bees. Finally, it analyzes six melittophily types namely: solitary bees, carpenter bees, euglossine bees, bumblebees, stingless bees, and honeybees.

Keywords:   bee pollination, bees, melittophily, flower, feeding apparatus, sociality, behavior, learning, honeybee, bumblebee

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