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Handbook of Meta-analysis in Ecology and Evolution$
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Julia Koricheva, Jessica Gurevitch, and Kerrie Mengersen

Print publication date: 2013

Print ISBN-13: 9780691137285

Published to Princeton Scholarship Online: October 2017

DOI: 10.23943/princeton/9780691137285.001.0001

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Phylogenetic Nonindependence and Meta-analysis

Phylogenetic Nonindependence and Meta-analysis

(p.284) 17 Phylogenetic Nonindependence and Meta-analysis
Handbook of Meta-analysis in Ecology and Evolution

Marc J. Lajeunesse

Michael S. Rosenberg

Michael D. Jennions

Princeton University Press

In ecological and evolutionary meta-analysis, pooling research from multiple species can be a problem because species form a nested hierarchy of phylogenetic relationships. This shared phylogenetic history can introduce a correlated structure to effect size data because studies on closely related species may yield similar outcomes, and therefore similar estimates of effect sizes. This similarity is the product of shared (i.e., phylogenetically conserved) morphological, physiological, or behavioral characteristics. This chapter describes statistical methods to account for phylogenetic nonindependence of species when pooling and testing for homogeneity of effect sizes. It also describes a method that compares the results of a traditional and a phylogenetically independent meta-analysis to evaluate which approach was more effective at explaining variation in research outcomes. Using these methods, it provides a worked example of a meta-analysis on trade-offs among plant antiherbivore defenses. The chapter concludes a discussion on approaches for collating phylogenetic information for meta-analysis.

Keywords:   ecology, evolutionary biology, research pooling, phylogenetic relationships, meta-analysis, effect size, phylogenetic nonindependence

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