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The Soldier and the Changing StateBuilding Democratic Armies in Africa, Asia, Europe, and the Americas$
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Zoltan Barany

Print publication date: 2012

Print ISBN-13: 9780691137681

Published to Princeton Scholarship Online: October 2017

DOI: 10.23943/princeton/9780691137681.001.0001

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After Colonial Rule in Africa: Ghana, Tanzania, and Botswana

After Colonial Rule in Africa: Ghana, Tanzania, and Botswana

(p.275) Chapter 9 After Colonial Rule in Africa: Ghana, Tanzania, and Botswana
The Soldier and the Changing State

Zoltan Barany

Princeton University Press

This chapter focuses on Ghana, Tanzania, and Botswana. During the periods under study here, Ghana experienced intermittent military rule while Tanzania was a socialist state; their armed forces were not committed to democracy and, in Ghana's case, not even to civilian rule. Unlike Ghana, Tanzania was successful in establishing civilian control over the armed forces. Civilian control must not be confused with democratic control, however. In Tanzania, civilian control was unitary, the party-state's domination of the armed forces hardly surprising considering there was no independent legislature, judiciary, or any other political organization free of TANU/CCM control. Tanzania's example demonstrates that civilian control can be successful while incorporating the armed forces into the general political arena. Botswana's situation is similar to Tanzania's insofar as one party has ruled the country since independence, but with the major difference that in Botswana, during the same time period, free elections have been held at regular intervals.

Keywords:   Ghana, Tanzania, Botswana, civilian control, armed forces, party-state, free elections, democratic control, military rule

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