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Physiological Adaptations for Breeding in Birds$
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Tony D. Williams

Print publication date: 2012

Print ISBN-13: 9780691139821

Published to Princeton Scholarship Online: October 2017

DOI: 10.23943/princeton/9780691139821.001.0001

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Trade-Offs and Carry-Over Effects

Trade-Offs and Carry-Over Effects

(p.247) Chapter 7 Trade-Offs and Carry-Over Effects
Physiological Adaptations for Breeding in Birds

Tony D. Williams

Princeton University Press

This chapter first reviews the evidence for interactions between life-history stages, centering this around reproduction itself: the intention is to put reproduction in the context of the complete life-cycle. It considers how the wintering and pre-breeding period, including spring migration, can influence reproductive decisions, and in turn how reproductive decisions can influence subsequent post-breeding life stages such as molt, fall migration, and over-winter survival. It looks at the costs of reproduction, simply as a more specific example of general carry-over effects, especially from a mechanistic point of view, with potentially common underlying mechanisms. The chapter argues that short-term energy or nutrient “debts” and resource-allocation trade-offs provide unsatisfactory models for long-term carry-over effects or costs of reproduction; instead, it emphasizes potential “non-resource based” mechanisms.

Keywords:   life-history stages, female reproduction, avian reproduction, wintering, pre-breeding period, post-breeding life, reproductive costs, nutrient debts, resource allocation

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