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Cities of CommerceThe Institutional Foundations of International Trade in the Low Countries, 1250-1650$

Oscar Gelderblom

Print publication date: 2013

Print ISBN-13: 9780691142883

Published to Princeton Scholarship Online: October 2017

DOI: 10.23943/princeton/9780691142883.001.0001

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(p.277) Index

(p.277) Index

Source:
Cities of Commerce
Publisher:
Princeton University Press
Aardenburg, 151, 152, 170, 171, 211, 213
account books, 7, 49, 82, 87, 98, 101;
and double-entry bookkeeping, 86, 87, 94–100;
as legal proof, 17, 88, 89, 90n84, 94–101, 204, 207. See also registration
Acemoglu, Daron, 2, 5, 6, 167, 198
Admiralty Boards, 164, 165, 166, 167, 185
Admiralty Courts, 132, 183–84, 197
Adrichem, Claes van, 81
Africa, 37, 62, 66, 163, 166
Alba, Duke of, 32, 120, 160–61
America, 37, 62, 66, 163, 166
Amsterdam:
accommodation and storage facilities in, 70;
and Antwerp, 1, 34, 36, 37, 38, 60, 61, 70, 121, 137, 162–63;
arbitration in, 17, 106, 107, 108, 125;
Bank of Exchange (Wisselbank), 38, 70–71, 126;
Bourse of, 7, 71, 72, 73;
brokers in, 57–62, 66, 67, 70–74, 75, 122, 198;
and Bruges, 15, 25, 38, 123;
cashiers in, 71;
churches in, 121–22, 125;
commission trade in, 79;
and Company of Merchant Adventurers, 38–39;
conflict resolution in, 17, 70, 106, 107, 108, 121–26;
and Deventer, 213;
Direction for the Levant Trade, 166–67;
and Dukes of Burgundy, 34;
and Dutch Revolt, 36, 59, 142, 162, 163, 223, 225;
English merchants in, 1, 38–39, 121–22, 123;
Flemish merchants in, 1, 37, 59, 121, 122, 123, 159;
French merchants in, 121;
and German Hanse, 34, 38, 58;
German merchants in, 1, 35, 38, 39, 58, 59, 121, 123, 159, 223;
and Haarlem, 38;
hinterland access to, 201;
hostellers/hostels in, 36, 43, 58, 59, 60, 70, 71, 73;
inclusive institutions in, 2, 16, 40, 70, 136, 197, 199, 200, 201;
information in, 57–74;
insolvencies/bankruptcies in, 70, 122, 124–25;
institutional adaptation by, 16, 41, 74, 99, 125, 126, 202;
insurance in, 38, 70, 73, 120, 121, 124, 194–96;
international payments in, 38, 71;
Italian merchants in, 1, 37, 38, 121;
laws of, 35, 58, 70, 94, 98, 99, 101, 135, 137;
legal autonomy of, 139, 140, 201;
legal proof in, 94, 97, 98, 101;
and Leyden, 38;
magistrate of, 36, 39, 40, 70, 71, 72, 73, 99, 121, 123, 125, 135, 137, 181, 199, 202, 221;
money market in, 67–70, 101;
notaries of, 92–94, 98, 99;
political autonomy of, 201;
political elite of, 3, 39, 199;
Portuguese merchants in, 1, 38, 39, 83, 106, 108, 121, 123, 125;
price currents in, 61, 73–74, 195;
privileges of merchants, 1, 38–40, 121;
protection of merchants in, 1, 146, 157, 163–64, 166–67, 198;
residence (permanent) in, 35, 36, 38, 43, 57, 58, 59, 60, 70;
risk management in, 190, 197;
shipping services in, 34, 35, 62, 94, 163, 189;
and Spain, 36;
and taxation, 35, 36, 58, 124, 164–66;
and urban competition, 1, 4, 11, 37, 39–41;
Walloon merchants in, 39;
and William of Orange, 36–37, 165
—: courts of:
absence of consular, 1, 18, 121, 124, 203;
Admiralty Court in, 184;
Chamber of Insolvent Estates, 124, 125–26;
Chamber of Insurance, 126;
Chamber of Maritime Affairs, 126;
Commissioners of Minor Affairs (Kleine Zaken), 124, 125;
consular, 35;
local, 58, 122–26;
Orphan Chamber, 124, 125
—: and trade:
with Baltic region, 16, 34, 35, 36, 37, 59, 87, 121, 167;
in beer, 25, 35;
in colonial wares, 37, 38, 62;
in grain, 34, 35, 36, 38, 57–58, 59;
in jewelry, 62, 63–65;
in textiles, 34, 35, 38, 61
Anabaptists, 161
Answaarden, Robert van, 127
Antwerp:
accommodation and storage facilities in, 31, 32, 52, 54–55, 208;
and Amsterdam, 1, 34, 36, 37, 38, 60, (p.278) 61, 70, 121, 137, 162–63;
arbitration in, 17;
and Bergen-op-Zoom, 31;
Biscaye merchants in, 30;
brokers in, 52–53, 56–57, 61, 75, 120, 198;
and Bruges, 26, 28–32, 50, 54, 56, 115, 117, 120, 154–55, 167–68, 206;
Calvinist Republic in (1577–1585), 162;
cashiers in, 71;
Castilian merchants in, 119–20;
Catalan merchants in, 29–30;
and Charles V, 31, 70, 117, 120, 156–59, 164, 199;
cloth finishing industry, 28, 29, 30, 31, 55, 178;
Cloth Hall, 115, 119;
commission trade in, 79, 80;
and Company of Merchant Adventurers, 29, 55, 116–17, 161, 196;
conflict resolution in, 56, 117–20;
and Count of Flanders, 26;
and Deventer, 213;
and Duke of Parma, 33, 59, 162, 168;
and Dukes of Burgundy, 27, 28–29;
and Dutch Revolt, 1, 18, 37, 142, 159, 162, 168, 193;
and English cloth trade, 24, 25, 27, 29, 30, 31, 111, 116, 178, 223;
English merchants in, 25, 32, 33, 40, 52n53, 54, 55, 56n70, 81, 111, 115, 119, 137, 153, 174, 178, 208, 212, 223;
Exchange (Nieuwe Beurs), 31, 55, 56, 57, 71, 92, 119, 125, 194;
fairs of, 25–31, 32n83, 50, 52, 54, 74, 115, 143–44, 153, 174, 176, 183;
Fall in 1585 of, 1, 37–38, 136–37, 162, 223;
and Flemish Revolt of 1483–1492, 28–29, 142, 167–68, 206;
Florentine merchants in, 29;
and French Fury (1583), 223;
French merchants in, 30, 32, 33, 54, 94, 222;
Genoese merchants in, 29, 115, 116, 119, 135n145, 161;
and German Hanse, 27, 30, 115, 180;
German merchants in, 32, 33, 40, 54, 55–56, 59, 117, 137, 155, 174, 175, 208, 219;
and Guelders, 156, 222;
hinterland access to, 31;
Hof van Liere, 55;
hostellers/hostels in, 32, 43, 52, 53, 54, 56;
inclusive institutions in, 40, 121, 197, 199, 200, 201;
information in, 52, 57;
insolvencies/bankruptcies in, 97, 117–18, 125;
institutional adaptation by, 41, 74, 117, 119, 126, 202;
insurance in, 31, 55, 57, 119–21, 136, 137, 194;
international payments in, 38, 71;
laws of, 54, 99, 117, 118, 119, 135–36;
legal autonomy of, 139, 140, 201;
legal proof in, 89, 97, 98, 99, 101;
and Louis of Male, 26, 154;
Lucchese merchants in, 29, 115–16;
magistrate of, 31, 54, 55, 56, 57, 80, 92, 99, 117, 120, 144, 202;
and Maximilian I, 28, 29, 142, 167–68, 206;
money market in, 31, 55, 57, 70, 101, 156;
notaries of, 91, 92–94;
Oosterlingenhuis, 55–56, 117;
and Philip II, 159, 160, 162, 168, 206;
political autonomy of, 201;
political elite of, 3, 31;
Portuguese merchants in, 29, 32, 33, 54, 56, 97, 117, 136–37, 155;
price currents in, 57, 82;
privileges of merchants in, 28–29, 40, 115, 136, 180, 199;
protection of merchants in, 143, 157–58;
residence (permanent) in, 38, 54–56;
risk management in, 187–88, 197;
and Spanish Fury (1576), 33, 162;
Spanish merchants in, 120;
and taxation, 29, 156, 157, 158, 159, 160, 174;
as transit station, 31–32;
and urban competition, 4, 28, 40–41, 50;
Venetian merchants in, 117, 171, 176, 194;
and William of Orange, 36–37, 165
—: courts of:
consular, 29–30, 35, 114–21, 133, 203;
local, 56, 91, 99, 114–21, 133, 135, 139–40;
mercantile, 119;
subsidiary, 119
—: and trade:
and Baltic region, 30, 32, 33, 34, 87, 180;
in grain, 30, 36, 136;
in jewelry, 55;
in spices, 15, 27, 29, 53;
in textiles, 24, 25, 27, 29, 30, 31, 53, 110–11, 116, 178, 223;
in wool, 54, 80, 153
Aragonese merchants:
in Antwerp, 29–30, 116, 117;
in Bruges, 23, 24, 25, 110, 150, 177, 194, 217, 218
arbiters/arbitration, 17, 105–8, 112, 139, 140, 174, 185–86, 203
Arnemuyden, 194
Ars Notariatus, 92n8
Asia. See colonial trade
Asturia, 177
Augsburg, 82n32, 163
Augsburg merchants, 86
(p.279) Bacher, Andries, 65n115, 69n128
Baltic region, 1, 7, 19, 148–49, 157, 200;
and Amsterdam, 16, 34, 35, 36, 37, 59, 87, 121, 167;
and Antwerp, 30, 32, 33, 34, 87, 180;
and Bruges, 15, 20, 22, 50, 178, 179;
Dutch merchants in, 164, 166–67, 179, 180, 187;
and Dutch Republic, 166, 167;
Flemish merchants in, 78, 148, 179;
maritime law in, 204;
merchants from, 21, 34
bankruptcies. See insolvencies/bankruptcies
Barbary pirates, 166
Barcelona:
Consulado del Mar, 111, 188n104;
merchants from, 194
Bardi family, 85
Bergen (Norway), 44
Bergen-op-Zoom:
and Antwerp, 31;
and English merchants, 25, 29, 115, 155, 178, 220;
fairs of, 25–28, 29, 30, 31, 115, 153n55, 155, 205, 214;
and Spanish merchants, 30
Berwijns, Berent, 65, 66
Bilbao, 30, 147
bills obligatory. See money market
bills of exchange, 82, 98, 203, 208;
in Amsterdam, 67, 71, 73, 98, 125;
in Antwerp, 31, 55, 57, 93, 98, 117, 135n145, 156;
in Bruges, 28, 84, 89, 90;
in Genoa, 89, 90;
maritime, 190–91
Biscay, merchants from, 21, 24, 30, 110, 128, 147, 177
Boel, Augustijn, 62, 63, 66, 67n123, 87, 163
Bois-le-Duc, 61
Bologna, 89
bookkeeping. See account books
bottomry loans, 98, 134, 190
Bourgneuf, Bay of, 213
boycotts, 8, 14, 37, 175, 205–6;
and Bruges, 170–74, 175, 205;
costs of, 170, 176, 179, 180, 185n, 196, 201;
by English merchants, 170, 171, 174, 175, 205;
by German merchants, 152, 170–80, 205;
by Italian merchants, 205;
by Spanish merchants, 152, 170, 171, 175–77, 205;
and urban competition, 18, 169, 176, 196
Brabant, 151, 153, 161, 213
Brabant, Council of, 159
Brabant, Duke of, 26, 114–15, 143, 144, 171
Brabant, fairs of, 25–28, 29, 30, 31, 50, 52, 74, 109, 115, 130, 139–40, 143–44, 153, 155, 176, 183, 214. See also Antwerp; Bergen-op-Zoom
Braudel, Fernand, 4–5
Brielle, 161
Brittany:
merchants from, 182;
shipmasters from, 113
brokers, 16, 80n16, 198;
in Amsterdam, 57–62, 66, 67, 70–74, 75, 122, 198;
in Antwerp, 52–53, 56–57, 61, 75, 120, 198;
in Bruges, 23, 45–52, 75, 198;
and commission trade, 79–80;
hostellers as, 16, 43, 45–46, 47–52, 71, 73, 202, 207;
price currents published by, 57, 61, 73–74
Bruges:
accommodation and storage facilities in, 23, 42, 45, 49, 50, 51;
and Amsterdam, 15, 25, 38, 123;
and Antwerp, 26, 28–32, 50, 54, 56, 115, 117, 120, 154–55, 167–68, 206;
Aragonese merchants in, 23, 24, 25, 110, 150, 177, 194, 217, 218;
arbitration in, 17, 106;
and Bergen-op-Zoom, 26;
Biscay merchants in, 21, 24;
Bourse square, 28, 45;
boycotts of, 152, 170–80, 205;
and Brabant fairs, 27, 29, 30, 153, 214;
brokers in, 23, 45–52, 75, 198;
Castilian merchants in, 21, 23, 24, 25, 27, 30, 38, 45, 114, 120, 147, 158, 176, 177, 194, 208;
Catalan merchants in, 20, 47;
and Charles V, 117, 156;
Cologne merchants, in, 21;
commission trade in, 79–80;
conflict resolution in, 104–6, 109–14, 133–34, 139–40;
and Counts of Flanders, 22, 26, 47, 134, 150–52, 153, 170, 172, 213;
and Deventer, 25;
and Dordrecht, 26;
and Dukes of Burgundy, 24, 150, 151, 154;
and English merchants, 21, 24, 26, 29, 45, 47, 110–11, 171–72, 175, 176, 177, 181, 192–93, 215;
fairs of, 20, 21, 22, 42, 51, 74, 109, 143, 203;
and Flemish Revolt of 1323-1328, 153, 213;
and Flemish Revolt of 1383–1389, 172n14, 173, 193;
and Flemish Revolt of 1483–1492, 18, 28–29, 41, 142, 155, 159, 167–68, 206, 219–20;
(p.280) Florentine merchants in, 22, 23, 24, 44n8, 45, 85, 179;
French merchants in, 45, 110, 113, 151, 170, 211;
Galician merchants in, 21;
and Gascony, 20;
Genoese merchants in, 21, 22, 23, 24, 44n8, 45, 106, 115, 219, 221;
and German Hanse, 23, 24, 27, 30, 47, 49, 50, 171, 172, 196, 205;
German Kontor in, 30, 117, 133, 134, 172, 174, 175, 186, 214, 216, 219;
German merchants in, 21–27, 45, 47, 48, 51, 52n55, 79, 94, 109, 110, 113–14, 117, 149n36, 151, 152, 170–80, 206, 208, 211, 213, 215, 216;
hinterland access to, 201;
hostellers/hostels in, 23, 43, 45–46, 47–52, 79;
Iberian merchants in, 24;
inclusive institutions in, 40, 199;
information in, 44–52, 82;
insolvencies/bankruptcies in, 80, 118;
institutional adaptation by, 41, 74, 126, 202;
insurance in, 114, 119, 194;
international payments in, 28, 84, 89, 90;
Irish merchants in, 23n25;
Italian merchants in, 20, 24, 27, 28, 52n55, 94, 111, 176, 181, 186–87;
laws of, 109, 135;
legal autonomy of, 134, 139, 140;
legal proof in, 49, 79–80, 83, 89, 94, 95, 97, 98, 101;
and Lübeck, 171, 175;
Lucchese merchants in, 22, 23, 24, 25, 45, 46, 81, 83, 85, 110–12, 114, 176, 179;
and Maximilian I, 14, 28, 142, 155, 159, 167–68, 220;
Medici merchants in, 27, 47, 105;
Milanese merchants in, 23, 25;
money changers in, 24, 45, 49, 50n43, 79–80, 149n36, 173;
Navarre merchants in, 23, 24, 30n67;
notaries of, 89–90, 91;
Piacenza merchants in, 23;
political autonomy of, 201;
political elite of, 211;
Portuguese merchants in, 21, 23, 25, 45, 114, 115, 155, 176;
privileges of merchants in, 22–23, 29, 40, 51, 109, 143, 150, 152, 155, 172, 178, 199, 205;
protection of merchants in, 23, 45, 143, 153, 172, 205;
residence (permanent) in, 17, 32, 38, 42, 43, 50–51, 152;
risk management in, 190–94, 197;
Scottish merchants in, 21, 23, 24, 25, 45, 110;
Southern German merchants in, 24, 25;
Spanish merchants in, 23, 25, 52n55, 110, 147, 151, 152, 156, 170–71, 175–77, 194;
and taxation, 22, 29, 151–54, 211;
as transit station, 20–25;
and urban competition, 4, 25–27, 28, 40–41, 50;
Venetian merchants in, 21–23, 25, 44n8, 45, 114, 142, 147, 150, 171, 186;
weighing of goods in, 151, 152, 170–71;
Wissel (Exchange) in, 45
—: courts of:
consular, 17, 18, 23, 24, 29, 83, 110–16, 117, 119–20, 133, 203;
local, 18, 51, 91, 109, 113–14, 139–40, 194
—: trade in:
with Baltic region, 15, 20, 22, 50, 178, 179;
in textiles, 22, 24, 27, 28, 29, 45, 110–11;
in wool, 21, 33, 47, 80, 111, 171–72, 176, 193
Brulez, Wilfrid, 31
Bruyningh, Jan Franssen, 93
Burgos, merchants from, 30, 147, 158, 194
Burgundian rulers, of Netherlands:
and Amsterdam, 181;
and Antwerp, 28–29;
and Bruges, 150, 151, 154;
centralizing tendencies of, 198;
and compensation for losses, 197;
creation of central courts by, 126, 129, 182, 183;
and England, 28, 29, 147, 150, 174, 177, 178, 215, 216, 218, 219;
and France, 220, 221;
and German Hanse, 179;
and Ghent, 154, 221;
and Great Council of Malines, 182, 183;
and Holland, 178;
and Italian merchant bankers, 28;
protection of trade by, 28, 34, 144, 150, 183;
and Spain, 177;
unification by, 18, 154, 198;
and urban autonomy, 150, 151;
and warfare, 146, 147, 149, 150, 170, 218;
Burlamachi family, 38
business letters. See correspondence
byloopers, 71–72, 73, 122
Cairo, 42
Calais, 154, 172, 193, 219, 220, 221
Calandrini family, 38
Calvinist Republic in Antwerp (1577–1585), 162
Calvinists, 161
(p.281) caratatio, 188, 189
cartels, 169
Castile:
pirates, 218;
privateers from, 148, 217, 218. See also Spain; Spanish merchants
Castilian merchants:
in Antwerp, 117, 155;
in Bruges, 21, 23, 24, 25, 27, 30, 38, 45, 114, 147, 158, 176, 177, 194, 208;
consular jurisdiction of, 117, 119–20;
and Great Council of Malines, 128;
and marine insurance, 119, 194;
protection of, 158;
safe-conducts for, 143;
wool trade of, 194
Catalan merchants, 20, 47, 114, 179, 194, 215, 217, 218;
consular jurisdiction of, 29–30
Catholics, 39
Cely, Richard and George, 80
certificaties, 91
Champagne, fairs of, 20, 21, 42, 142, 200, 213;
courts of, 77n8, 88, 103, 109
Charles the Bold, 24, 149, 155, 221
Charles V, 18, 54, 156;
and Amsterdam, 137;
and Antwerp, 31, 117, 120, 135, 156–59, 164, 199;
and Antwerp money market, 31, 70, 119, 156, 198–99;
and Bruges, 117;
Eternal Edict of, 158–59, 223;
and Florentine consuls, 115;
and France, 156, 157;
and German Hanse, 159;
and insurance conflicts, 119;
and notaries, 91–92;
and Ordinance on Navigation of 1550, 135, 137, 157;
and Philip II, 159–60;
protection of trade by, 155–58;
and Protestantism, 158–59;
and taxation, 156, 157, 158;
and violence, 222–23
China, 4, 12, 201
Christian II, King of Denmark, 36, 222
cities:
and access to hinterland, 19, 36, 200, 201, 205;
commercial infrastructure of, 6, 10;
connectivity between, 15;
financial resources of, 3, 10, 154, 156, 157, 159, 160;
and footloose merchants, 13, 14, 201, 205;
inclusive institutions in, 1–4, 6, 10, 11, 198–200, 206–8;
institutional adaptation by, 3, 4, 10–11, 43, 99, 104, 133, 202;
institutional convergence between, 204;
legal autonomy of, 3, 10, 41, 102, 104, 134, 139, 140;
legal infrastructure of, 6, 10–11, 140;
political autonomy of, 10, 201;
political elites of, 3, 11, 23, 31, 39, 40n123, 136, 199;
protection of merchants by, 10, 141–42, 158n72, 174, 207;
and sovereign rulers, 12, 150, 154, 156;
Colbert, Jean-Baptiste, Code de Commerce, 209
collateral:
Dutch East India Company shares as, 67–69, 207;
and permission first rule, 56n73;
sale of, 128. See also credit
collective action, 7–9, 14, 140n168, 169, 170–80, 196–97, 203, 215, 227–33. See also boycotts; merchant guilds
Cologne, 22, 42n2, 84, 163, 200, 223
Cologne merchants, 21, 88
colonial trade, 15, 37, 38, 39, 53, 62, 66, 67, 166, 191, 208
commenda, 76, 78–79, 89, 90;
bilateral commenda, 83–84. See also Widerlegung
Commercial Revolution, 7, 9, 42, 89, 190
commission trade, 76–83, 203
community responsibility system, 8, 103
compagnia, 84–86
Compangnye op Dansick, 87
company contracts, 85, 87, 94, 99, 107, 130. See also caratatio; commenda; compagnia; partenrederij
Company of Merchant Adventurers, 29, 115, 179n50;
and Amsterdam, 38–39;
and Antwerp, 32n83, 55, 116–17, 161, 196;
and Hamburg, 55;
and Stade, 32, 161. See also English merchants
compensation for losses, 8, 9, 18, 169, 170, 196–97;
by Castilian and Aragonese merchants, 177;
for Catalan merchants in Bruges, 47;
and community responsibility, 103;
and court proceedings, 181–86, 197;
for English merchants in Antwerp, 174;
for Flanders, 177;
for foreign nations of Bruges, 28;
for German merchants in Bruges, 171, 172–75, 176, 177, 178–80, 205;
for Holland, 178;
for Spanish merchants, 170, 171;
for Zeeland, 178. See also property; risks
(p.282) competition:
between cities (see urban competition);
between merchants, 2, 9, 21, 39, 40, 169, 176
conflict resolution. See arbiters/arbitration; courts
consignment trade, 79n12
Constantinople, 42, 78
Consulado of Burgos, 111
consulados, 7–8, 77, 104
consular courts:
absent from Amsterdam, 1, 18, 121, 124, 203;
advantages of, 111;
in Amsterdam, 35;
in Antwerp, 17, 18, 24, 29–30, 114–21, 133, 203;
in Bruges, 17, 18, 23, 24, 29, 83, 110–14, 117, 119–20, 133, 203;
and disciplining of sailors, 112, 113, 117, 147, 203;
and insurance conflicts, 119, 120;
and local courts, 18, 114;
and noncontentious litigation, 112
consular jurisdictions, 1, 9, 10, 17, 23, 26, 35, 41, 44, 104, 109–11, 112, 113, 114–16, 119–21, 123, 126, 140, 171, 180
consuls of foreign nations, 17, 23, 24, 29, 44, 97, 111, 114, 119, 135n145, 154, 176, 177;
of Lucca in Bruges, 83, 85, 111n47, 112
contracting institutions, 5, 19, 103, 198, 201, 204, 207;
adaptation of, 4, 12, 119, 134, 135, 138–40, 198, 202, 204;
contracts:
enforcement of, 2, 9, 11, 17, 64, 74, 77, 92, 102, 103, 116, 119, 121, 126, 128, 130, 139, 203, 207;
private writing of, 94, 96, 98–99, 120;
public registration of, 88–94, 98, 101, 116
convoys, 147, 148, 157–58, 165–66, 191, 203
Copenhagen, Peace of (1441), 149, 218
correspondence, 77, 87, 101;
in commission trade, 79–83;
as legal proof, 17, 83, 97, 98, 101, 204, 207. See also registration
corsairs. See piracy/pirates
Cotrugli, Benedetto, 95
Court of Holland/Hof van Holland, 130–32, 183n70, 184;
and arbitration, 108;
and Hollandsche Consultatiën, 137–38
courts:
central, 6, 17, 102–3, 126–33, 198, 199;
Italian, 95;
maritime, 106, 113, 124;
—: local, 8, 10, 11, 17, 18, 202, 204;
in Amsterdam, 18, 35, 91, 123–25, 126;
in Antwerp, 17, 18, 91, 114–21, 133;
and arbitration, 108, 203;
in Bruges, 18, 51, 91, 109, 194;
and compensation for losses, 181;
and consular courts, 114;
and Court of Holland, 132;
and courts of appeal, 127, 129, 130;
extension of, 203;
and Great Council of Malines, 129, 183;
and insurance conflicts, 119;
and maritime law of Visby, 35;
noncontentious legislation of, 91;
and notaries, 93;
and proceedings for merchants, 17, 83, 96, 100, 101, 185, 204, 207. See also Scabini Flandriae
—: of appeal, 127, 128–29, 133, 184;
and Court of Holland, 130–32, 183n70;
and Great Council of Malines, 183;
and Hoge Raad van Holland en Zeeland, 132
—: provincial, 133;
and compensation for losses, 181;
and courts of appeal, 127, 129, 130;
and Great Council of Malines, 129, 183
credit, 83, 84, 86, 87, 89, 104, 105, 128, 188, 203;
in Amsterdam, 38, 67, 69, 190, 207;
in Antwerp, 31, 55, 57, 70, 118, 158, 199;
and bottomry loans, 98, 134, 190;
in Bruges, 28, 109, 176, 190;
to Habsburg rulers, 158, 161, 198–99;
and Hans Thijs, 62, 64n107, 67–70, 81;
interest rates on, 68–69, 105n16, 207;
and sea loans (foenus nauticum), 190, 191;
short-term, 38, 43, 55, 57, 156 176, 203;
Damme, 22, 44;
maritime court of, 106, 113, 124;
maritime law of, 133, 134, 136
Danish Sound, 164, 220;
closure of, 157, 222;
and Sound Toll, 148–49, 218
Danzig, 34, 62, 63, 68–69, 193
(p.283) Danzig merchants, 35, 36, 58
debt, 77, 88, 93, 169, 188, 189;
in Amsterdam, 124, 125;
in Antwerp, 56, 117, 118, 119, 125;
in Bruges, 85, 112, 173, 179;
collective liability for, 8, 144;
hostellers as liable for, 16, 49–51, 56;
recorded by notaries, 89, 90, 91, 93;
recorded in account books, 96, 97;
settlement of, 104, 105;
del Becque, Louis, 130
Delft, 39, 187
Denijs, Pieter, 108
Denmark, 58, 148, 157, 214, 218, 220
derivatives, trade in, 133, 208
Deventer, 25, 174, 213
Diodati family, 38
Doehaerd, Renée, 91
Dokkum, Admiralty Court in, 184
Dordrecht, 26, 34, 35, 152, 171, 172, 212;
English merchants in, 39;
German merchants in, 113, 172, 214, 216
Dordrecht, Synod of, 122
Dortmund, 171
Douai, 34
double-entry bookkeeping. See account books
Dunkirk privateers, 163, 183, 226
Dutch colonial companies, 97–98
Dutch merchants, 55, 88, 196, 215;
in Antwerp, 55;
and Baltic trade, 34, 179;
compensation for, 184–85;
and Dutch Revolt, 225;
and marine insurance, 194;
and risk management, 189, 194;
safe-conducts for, 143;
in Venice, 209;
violence to, 184–85, 211, 226. See also Holland
Dutch Republic (United Provinces), 2, 6, 15, 37, 60–61, 96, 126, 137, 146, 197, 226;
and States General, 18, 38–39, 121, 160–66, 184–85, 195;
war with Spain, 1, 38, 163–67
Dutch Revolt, 1, 18, 37, 41, 59, 159–63, 168, 193, 205, 223, 224–26
Dutch West India Company (WIC). See Westindische Compagnie (WIC; Dutch West India Company)
Edward I, King of England, 171
Edwards, Jeremy, 8
Elizabeth I, Queen of England, 224
Emden, 1
England, 1, 9, 60;
Antwerp merchants in, 161;
and Barbary pirates, 166;
and Bruges, 20, 22, 147;
and Burgundy, 28, 29, 147, 150, 174, 177, 178, 215, 218, 219;
central government in, 5–7;
chartered companies in, 6;
fairs in, 42, 88, 103, 109;
and Flanders, 152, 171, 215;
Flemish merchants in, 20, 21;
and France, 148, 150, 152, 153, 192, 212–13, 216, 219, 223;
and German Hanse, 220;
and Ghent, 154;
and Habsburg empire, 55, 159, 161, 162, 223;
and Holland, 220;
Italian merchants in, 193;
and lex mercatoria, 140;
and limited government, 5, 199;
and Magnus Intercursus, 29;
pirates from, 214, 221, 222, 224–25;
privateers from, 147, 149, 172, 185, 192, 212, 218, 222;
protection of merchants in, 22, 141, 143;
royal navy of, 10;
safe-conducts in, 22, 143;
and warfare, 2, 145, 220–21
English cloth, 5, 27;
and Antwerp, 24, 27, 29, 30, 31, 111, 116, 178, 223;
and Bergen-op-Zoom, 178;
and Bruges, 28, 29, 110–11. See also English wool
English merchants, 79, 119, 215;
in Amsterdam, 1, 38–39, 121–22, 123;
in Antwerp, 25, 26, 32, 33, 52n53, 54, 55, 56n70, 81, 111, 114–15, 119; 137, 153, 174, 178, 208, 212;
and arbitration, 106;
and Bergen-op-Zoom, 114–15, 178;
boycotts by, 170, 171, 174, 175, 205;
and Bruges, 21, 24, 26, 29, 45, 47, 110–11, 171–72, 175, 176, 177, 181, 192–93, 215;
and Calais, 172, 192–93;
and Champagne fairs, 142;
and commission trade, 79;
consular jurisdiction of, 110–11, 114–15, 116–17;
and Dordrecht, 26, 152–53;
and Dutch Revolt, 137, 225;
and Great Council of Malines, 182;
as interlopers, 39;
and marine insurance, 194;
and notaries, 92;
privileges for, 16, 153, 174;
protection of, 144, 178;
and risk management, 186–87, 189, 194;
safe-conducts for, 143;
in (p.284) Venice, 209;
English wool:
and Antwerp, 26, 54, 80, 212, 214;
and Bergen-op-Zoom, 26;
and Bruges, 21, 47, 80, 111, 171–72, 176;
and Calais, 28, 172, 176;
and Dordrecht, 171;
export of, 5, 21, 22, 150, 152–53, 186, 187. See also English cloth
Epstein, Larry, 19
equity contracts. See company contracts
escorts, armed, 10, 144, 147, 157, 163–64, 167
Exchange:
in Amsterdam, 71, 73, 108, 125;
in Antwerp (Nieuwe Beurs), 31, 55, 56, 57, 71, 92, 119, 125, 194;
in Bruges (Bourse square), 28, 45
factors, 29, 49, 193
Faille, Jan Della, 86
Faille, Maarten Della, 81
fairs, 10, 51, 102;
of Antwerp, 25–28, 29, 31, 32n83, 52, 54, 115, 143, 144, 150, 153, 174, 176, 203, 205, 214;
of Bergen-op-Zoom, 25–28, 29, 30, 31, 115, 153n55, 155, 205, 214;
of Brabant, 25–28, 29, 30, 31, 50, 74, 109, 130, 139–40, 143, 144, 153, 155, 176, 183, 214;
of Bruges, 20, 21, 22, 42, 51, 74, 109, 203;
of Deventer, 25;
of Flanders, 20, 26, 42, 44, 46n15, 48, 51, 74, 88, 109, 139–40;
freedom of, 143, 144, 167, 183, 205;
in Poland/Lithuania, 62;
of Rhineland, 42;
and safety of merchants, 205, 213;
in South-East England, 42, 88, 103, 109. See also Champagne, fairs of
Farnese, Alexander, Duke of Parma, 33, 59 162, 168
Ferufini, Jean-Baptiste, 57, 120
fiat money, 208
finishing, of cloth, 27–28, 29, 30, 55
Flanders, 18, 20, 60, 148, 151, 168;
and Amsterdam, 60;
and Anglo-French conflict, 150, 212;
and Antwerp, 26, 153, 214;
and Brabant, 151, 153, 213;
and Charles V, 156;
and Dutch Revolt, 223;
and England, 148, 152–53, 171, 211, 214, 215;
fairs of, 20, 26, 42, 48, 74, 88, 109;
and France, 151, 212, 213;
and German Hanse, 172–73;
and Great Council of Malines, 129;
and Philip the Good, 154;
pirates from, 215–16;
privateers from, 192, 216;
textile industry of, 1, 22, 25;
urban network of, 22, 24
Flanders, Council of, 129
Flanders, Counts of, 47, 109, 113, 114, 148, 149, 153, 211;
and Bruges, 22, 26, 47, 134, 150–52, 153, 170, 172, 213;
and compensation for losses, 181;
dynastic ambitions of, 150;
and German merchants, 151, 170;
and Malines, 214;
safe-conducts issued by, 20, 143
Flanders, Estates of, 47, 120, 151, 155
Flandrischen Copiar, 133–34
Flemish cloth, 20, 21, 22
Flemish merchants, 22, 196, 215;
in Amsterdam, 59, 121, 122, 123, 159;
and arbitration, 107;
compensation for, 185;
and Court of Holland, 130, 131;
and Dutch Reformed Church, 122;
in England, 20, 21, 171;
and fairs of Champagne, 20–21, 142, 213;
and fall of Antwerp, 136–37;
in France, 20, 21;
and Habsburg-Valois Wars, 189;
hanse of, 20–21, 22;
and marine insurance, 194;
and risk management, 189, 194;
safe-conducts for, 20, 22, 143, 189;
and Spain, 226;
and violence, 147, 171, 185, 211, 219
Flemish Revolt of 1323-1328, 153, 213
Flemish Revolt of 1383-1389, 111, 172n14, 173, 193
Flemish Revolt of 1483-1492, 18, 28–29, 41, 142, 155, 159, 167–68, 205, 206, 219–20
Flemish ships, 147, 149, 177, 212, 213, 214, 217, 220–21
Florence, 25, 96;
galley fleets of, 142, 147, 191;
notaries of, 89
Florentine merchants, 218;
in Antwerp, 29, 115, 117, 119;
in Bruges, 22, 23, 24, 44n8, 45, 85, 179;
consular jurisdiction of, 24, 29, 115, 117;
and Great (p.285) Council of Malines, 182;
and marine insurance, 119, 191
Floris V, Count of Holland, 212
fondaco (fondachi), 44, 45
foreign nations (vreemde naties):
and Amsterdam, 35, 38, 39, 40;
in Antwerp, 18, 29–36, 81, 121, 128, 136, 154, 155, 157, 180, 199, 203, 205;
in Bruges, 18, 22–28, 44n8, 51, 81, 110, 112, 113, 114, 128, 153, 154, 155, 180, 194, 199, 203, 205, 206;
multiple functions of, 112–13, 140, 203, 207
Four Members of Flanders, 47, 144, 177, 217, 221
fragmentation, of Europe. See legal fragmentation; political fragmentation
France, 1, 4, 14, 163, 211;
and Barbary pirates, 166;
and Burgundy, 220, 221;
and England, 148, 150, 152, 153, 171, 192, 212–13, 216, 219, 223;
and Flanders, 151, 171, 213;
Flemish merchants in, 20, 21;
French corsairs, 157, 222;
and Guelders, 156;
mercantile courts in, 126;
notaries in, 99;
pirates from, 215–16, 222;
privateers from, 157, 222;
protection of merchants in, 22, 141, 143, 150;
and Spain, 160, 162, 163, 223;
and warfare, 2, 10, 142, 145, 158;
and Zeeland, 34. See also Habsburg-Valois wars
Frankfurt, 163, 200, 223
freight contracts, 73, 93, 94, 107, 108, 130, 192
French Fury (1583), 223
French merchants, 113;
in Amsterdam, 121;
in Antwerp, 30, 31, 32, 33, 54, 117, 222;
and boycotts, 175;
in Bruges, 45, 110, 113;
and Great Council of Malines, 128;
privileges for, 16;
removal from Bruges, 151, 170, 211;
and risk management, 190;
safe-conducts for, 189;
and violence, 189, 193, 212, 224
Friedeschiffe, 148
Friesland, 156, 164, 217
Fugger family, 35, 85, 169, 193
funduq, 44
Galicia, 21, 177, 217
Gascony, 20
gastrecht, 49–50
Genoa, 4, 6, 25, 42, 83, 90, 95, 96, 141;
galleys of, 22, 142, 147, 191, 192, 193, 212;
and German Hanse, 179;
inclusive institutions in, 206;
mercantile court of, 111, 138;
notaries of, 89–90;
and warfare, 2, 149
Genoese merchants, 76, 78–79, 85, 188, 215, 218;
in Antwerp, 29, 115, 116, 119, 135n145, 161;
and arbitration, 106;
in Bruges, 21, 22, 23, 24, 44n8, 45, 106, 115, 219, 221;
and consular jurisdiction, 24, 29, 115, 193–94;
and Great Council of Malines, 182;
and marine insurance, 119, 191–92, 193–94;
and notaries, 89–90, 92;
and risk management, 188, 190–91, 193;
safe-conducts for, 150
German Hanse, 189, 204, 214;
and Amsterdam, 34, 38, 58;
and Antwerp, 27, 30, 55, 115, 180;
and Bruges, 23, 24, 27, 30, 47, 49, 50, 171, 172, 196, 205;
and Castile, 218;
and Charles V, 159;
and collective action, 8, 18, 172, 176;
and Denmark, 148, 157, 218, 220, 221;
diet of, 113;
and England, 148, 219, 220;
and Estates of Flanders, 221;
and Flandrischen Copiar, 133–34;
and Holland, 34, 149, 165, 179–80, 214, 218, 222;
Kontor in Antwerp, 115, 117, 174, 175, 219;
Kontor in Bruges, 30, 117, 133, 134, 172, 174, 175, 186, 214, 216, 219;
Kontor in Dordrecht, 172, 214, 216;
and Kontorordnung, 113, 176;
Prussian quarter of, 148, 187;
Wendische Viertel, 54, 164, 179;
and Zeeland, 214. See also Lübeck
German merchants:
in Amsterdam, 1, 35, 38, 39, 58, 59, 79, 121, 123, 159, 223;
in Antwerp, 27, 30, 32, 33, 40, 54, 55–56, 59, 115, 117, 137, 208;
and boycotts, 152, 170–80, 205;
in Bruges, 21–27, 45, 47, 48, 51, 52n55, 79, 94, 109, 110, 113–14, 170–80, 208, 215;
and Claghe der Oosterlingen, 172;
compensation for, 171–80, 185, 214, 216, 227–32;
consular jurisdiction of, 110, 113–16;
and Dordrecht, 26, 113;
and Great Council of Malines, 128, 182;
and marine insurance, 194;
and notaries, 92–94;
privileges (p.286) for, 16, 109, 113, 144, 151–52, 174;
protection of, 141, 147–48;
removal from Bruges, 27, 117, 149n36, 151, 152, 170–71, 174, 211, 213;
removal to Aardenburg, 213;
removal to Antwerp, 27, 117, 155;
removal to Deventer, 174;
removal to Dordrecht, 172, 214, 216;
removal to Utrecht, 174;
and risk management, 186, 187, 189, 190, 194;
safe-conducts for, 143;
staple rights in Bruges, 113, 174;
and violence, 150, 172, 177, 185, 211, 215, 216, 218, 219, 224;
and Vitalienbrüder, 147–48, 216
German privateers, 34, 134, 172, 180, 193, 220
German sailors, 113, 220
German shipmasters, 113
German ships, 123, 189
Germany:
Amsterdam merchants in, 37;
Antwerp merchants in, 161;
brokers from, 60, 61;
Flemish merchants in, 20–21, 22, 88, 143;
monetary unions in, 204
Germany (Southern), 23, 25, 27, 30, 110, 117
Ghent, 127, 151, 153–54, 155, 161, 215, 221
Glorious Revolution, 5
Godding, Philippe, 88n74
Goldberg, Jessica, 8
Golden Spurs, Battle of (1302), 212
government, central, 2, 5–6, 8, 18, 126, 127, 130, 133, 144, 151, 184. See also rulers
government, local, 2, 3, 8, 10–15, 16–18, 19–20, 78, 99, 104, 141–43, 197, 199, 203. See also Amsterdam; Antwerp; Bruges; cities; rulers
Granvelle, Antoine Perrenot de, 160
Great Council of Malines. See Malines, Great Council of
Great Privilege, 150, 1477
Greenland, 190
Greif, Avner, 2, 7, 8, 14, 79, 103, 199
Greifswald, 214
Groningen, 156, 162
Guelders, Dukes of, 156, 222
guest system. See gastrecht
Guyenne, 212
Haarlem, 38
Habsburgs, as rulers of Netherlands:
and Antwerp, 155–56;
and Bruges, 14, 156;
centralizing tendencies of, 18, 142, 198;
unification by, 18, 155–59;
and urban autonomy, 126, 179n50, 201;
Habsburg-Valois Wars, 156–57, 189, 193, 198–99, 221, 223
Hainaut, 151, 154
Hainaut merchants, 45
Haller, Steffen, 62, 78, 80
Hamburg, 1, 37, 55, 63, 161
Hamburg merchants, 21, 25, 35, 58, 143, 186, 216
Hanseatic League. See German Hanse
hanses, 7–8, 20, 77, 104. See also German Hanse
Hansetag, 175
Harlingen, Admiralty Court in, 184
Heiligerlee, Battle of (1568), 161
Henry III, King of England, 171, 211
Henry of Navarre, King of France, 162
Henry V, King of England, 218
hinterland, urban access to, 19, 36, 200, 201, 205
Hirschman, Albert, 14n49
Hobbes, Thomas, 5
Hof van Holland (Court of Holland), 127, 181, 184
Hoge Raad van Holland en Zeeland (Supreme Court), 127, 132, 133, 184
Holland, 18, 34;
and Denmark, 157;
and Dukes of Burgundy, 129, 154, 178;
and Dutch Revolt, 1, 32, 161, 162, 223;
and England, 220;
and Flanders, 151;
and Friesland, 217;
and German Hanse, 34, 149, 179–80, 214, 218, 222;
and Habsburg rulers, 156, 168;
merchant fleet of, 37;
merchants from (see Dutch merchants);
pirates from, 215–16, 221;
privateers from, 192, 217, 218, 224;
and protection of merchants, 144, 163, 164, 198;
and Spain, 168;
and tax on grain trade (congégeld), 165;
and Utrecht, 215
Holland, Count of, 113, 143, 144, 150, 216
Holland, Estates of, 92, 158n72, 165, 184
(p.287) Hollandsche Consultatiën, 137–38
Hoorn/Enkhuizen, Admiralty Court in, 184
hostellers/hostels:
accommodation and storage facilities of, 16, 43, 74, 202;
in Amsterdam, 36, 43, 58, 59, 60, 70, 71, 73;
in Antwerp, 32, 43, 52, 53, 54, 56;
as brokers, 16, 43, 45–46, 47–52, 71, 73, 202, 207;
in Bruges, 23, 43, 45–46, 47–52, 79;
as commission agents, 16, 43, 49, 74, 79, 80, 202;
as liable for guests’ debts, 16, 56;
multiple functions of, 43, 49, 74, 113, 140, 207;
as vending locations, 74. See also information
Hôtel Bladelin, 27
Huguenots, 14, 162
Hulst, 149, 220
Hundred Years’ War, 149, 150, 212–13, 215
Iberian merchants, 24, 111. See also Portuguese merchants; Spanish merchants
Iberian Peninsula, 32, 33–34, 37, 158
Iconoclasm (1566), 32, 160
imprisonment, of merchants:
and debt collection, 50–51, 97, 104, 128, 144;
in reprisal of violence, 144, 149, 150, 171, 181;
and tax collection, 183
inclusive institutions, 1–4, 6, 10, 11, 19, 20, 40, 121, 197, 198–200, 205–8
information:
and accounting, 85–88, 101;
in Amsterdam, 57–74;
in Antwerp, 52–57;
and brokers/hostellers, 16, 46–49, 52–54, 56–57, 71–75, 101;
in Bruges, 44–52;
and fairs, 21, 42, 48, 52, 74, 88;
and merchant guilds, 7, 44–45, 54, 81, 101;
and merchant networks, 77–78, 80–83, 87;
and notaries, 89–94;
and permanent residence, 16, 43, 50–51, 54, 62–68, 73, 74, 101
insolvencies/bankruptcies:
in Amsterdam, 70, 122, 124–25;
in Antwerp, 97, 117–18;
in Bruges, 80, 118;
and court proceedings, 97, 130, 140
insurance, 12, 90, 135, 182, 191–97, 203, 208;
in Amsterdam, 38, 70, 73, 120, 121, 194–96;
in Antwerp, 31, 55, 57, 119–21, 136, 137, 194;
and arbiters, 107;
in Bruges, 114, 119, 194;
and court proceedings, 114, 128, 130, 140;
and Genoese merchants, 90, 191–92;
registration of policies for, 90, 93, 120–21, 135;
regulation of, 120–21, 135, 137
Irish merchants, 23n25, 150
Islamic merchants, 76
Islamic world, 6, 44
Italian city-states, 2, 9, 88, 89, 141, 147, 199, 200, 201
Italian merchants, 79, 84–85, 92, 96–97, 128, 176, 190, 215;
in Amsterdam, 1, 37, 38, 121;
in Antwerp, 26, 29–33, 54, 155;
and boycotts, 175, 205;
in Bruges, 20, 24, 27, 28, 52n55, 94, 111, 181, 186–87;
compensation for, 185;
consular jurisdiction, 111;
and Great Council of Malines, 128;
privileges for, 16;
removal, 155, 176
Italy:
double-entry bookkeeping in, 95;
marine insurance in, 191–92;
mercantile courts in, 85, 111, 112, 119, 126, 138. See also Florence; Genoa; Lucca; Milan; Venice
jewelry, 25, 62–67
Jewish merchants, 7, 79, 122, 159
Jews, 39, 63, 122, 159
John III, duke of Brabant, 26
Johnson, Simon, 5, 6, 167, 198
John the Fearless, 27, 127, 219
judges, 8;
arbiters as lay, 107;
and central courts, 102–3;
consuls superseded by, 18;
specialized, 203. See also courts
Kadens, Emily, 204
Kampen, 216
Kessler, Amalia, 204
Lane, Frederic, 43
La Rochelle, 14, 149, 215, 218, 221;
merchants from, 113, 143
law:
common, 8;
customary (customs), 11, 41, 54, 58, 70, 97, 99, 101, 102, 109, 118, 135–40, 157, 202–4, 209;
maritime, 35, 113, 117, 123, 135, 137, 138, 188n104;
mercantile, 138;
and mercantile usage, 17, 41, 99, 101, 120, 133–39, 140, 198, 202, 203;
procedural, 56, 103, 104, 109, 135, 137. See also courts; turben
(p.288) law merchant (lex mercatoria), 8, 103, 138–40, 209
lawyers, 6, 11, 96, 102–3, 107, 127, 137–38. See also courts; judges
legal fragmentation, 2–3, 6, 7, 10, 15, 23, 27, 102, 110–14, 115–17, 134, 140, 141, 159, 204, 207
legal proof:
account books as, 17, 88, 89, 90n84, 95, 96–98, 99–100, 204, 207;
brokers’ accounts as, 49, 79–80;
correspondence as, 17, 83, 97, 98, 101, 204, 207;
deeds of sale as, 90;
hostellers’ accounts as, 79–80;
money changers’ accounts as, 79–80;
private documents as, 94;
shipmasters’ accounts as, 95, 188, 189n;
written records as, 88. See also certificaties; notaries; oaths; oral testimonies; registration; tally
legal responsibility, individual, 50–51, 56, 202
legal system, 16, 20, 197;
adaptation of, 41, 102–4, 124–26, 135, 139–40, 198, 202, 204, 209;
and Amsterdam, 58, 121–26;
and Antwerp, 52–53, 56, 114–21;
and Bruges, 109–14;
and urban autonomy, 10, 102, 104
Leicester, Count of, 224
Lemaire, Isaac, 130, 132
letters. See correspondence
letters of mark, 216, 217
lettres de foires, 88–89
Levant, 42, 76, 191, 201;
and Amsterdam, 166–67, 195, 221
lex mercatoria. See law merchant (lex mercatoria)
Leyden, 38
liability, 83n42, 86n61, 97, 134, 149n36;
collective, 3n8, 8, 56, 103;
of hostellers for guests’ debts, 49–51, 56;
limited, 84–85, 188–89;
Lille, 20, 34
Lisbon, 36, 38
Lithuania, 62
Livorno, 206
loans. See credit
Lombardy, merchants from, 154, 215, 221
London, 1, 5, 6, 7, 11, 25, 193, 201, 208, 209;
business elite in, 3, 14, 206;
Florentine merchants in, 85, 105;
German merchants in, 21, 44;
hinterland of, 201;
international trade in, 5, 85, 200201, 206;
Lucchese merchants in, 85;
as political and administrative center, 6
London, merchants from, 5, 37, 155, 185, 220. See also English merchants
Louis of Male, Count of Flanders, 26, 129, 150, 153, 154, 213
Louis of Nevers, Count of Flanders, 150
Louvain, merchants from, 144
Low Countries. See Netherlands
Lübeck, 22, 111, 193, 194, 201, 220;
and Bruges, 171, 175;
business contracts in, 78–79, 80, 83, 84, 89, 90;
business elites in, 13, 208;
Hanseatic diet led by, 113;
and Holland, 34, 148–49, 164, 180, 218;
and Vitalienbrüder, 147–48
Lübeck, merchants from, 21, 44, 54, 143
Lucca, 25, 38, 46, 111–12;
Corte dei Mercanti, 85, 111, 112
Lucchese merchants:
in Antwerp, 29, 115–17;
in Bruges, 22, 23, 24, 25, 45, 46, 81, 83, 85, 110–12, 114, 176, 179;
consular jurisdiction of, 110–12, 114, 116–17;
and transportation services, 112, 186
Lutherans, 39, 161
Luxemburg, 154
Lyons, 200
Maghribi traders, 7, 8, 79
Magnus Intercursus, 29, 1496)
Malines, 144, 153, 212, 214
Malines, Great Council of, 102, 127–30, 131, 182–84, 186
Malynes, Gerard, 138, 209
Margaret, duchess of Parma, royal regent in Netherlands, 160
Margaretha II, Countess of Flanders, 23, 28, 44, 46n15, 171, 211
marine insurance. See insurance
Mary, duchess of Burgundy, 28, 155
Mary of Hungary, royal regent in Netherlands, 159
Maximilian I of Habsburg, 28, 129–30, 155, 156, 167–68, 221;
and Antwerp, (p.289) 28, 29, 142, 167–68, 206;
and Bruges, 14, 28, 142, 155, 159, 167–68, 220
Mecklenburg, Dukes of, 148, 216
Medici merchants, 27, 47, 105, 169
Medina del Campo, 81
Mediterranean world, 7, 19, 42, 44, 76, 200, 206, 209;
and Bruges, 15, 177;
Dutch merchants in, 163, 165, 166, 187;
maritime law in, 204
mercantile associations. See merchant guilds
merchant guilds, 2–3, 7–9, 14, 20, 35, 77, 103–4, 147, 169, 170–80, 199, 202, 203, 205. See also consulados; foreign nations; hanses
merchant handbooks, 204
merchant networks, 7, 9, 16, 18, 37, 43, 66, 70, 77–78, 80–83, 87, 93, 100–101, 102–3, 105, 140, 162–63, 199, 203, 207, 208
merchants, footloose, 13, 14, 41, 158, 160, 168, 169, 201, 205–6
Messines, fairs of, 20
Middelburg, 34, 37, 149, 159, 174, 193, 194, 221;
Admiralty Court in, 184;
Court of Merchant Adventurers in, 39;
and Dutch Revolt, 162
Middle East, 4, 12
Milan, 25, 89;
merchants from, 23, 24, 110, 218
Milgrom, Paul, 14
Mokyr, Joel, 14n51
money changers, 10, 24, 45, 49, 50n43, 79–80, 149n36, 173
money market, 56n74, 67–70, 101, 156
Murray, James, 48n28
Namur, 154
Nantes, 1
Navarre, merchants from, 23, 24, 30n67, 217
Netherlands:
Burgundian unification of, 18, 154, 198;
Habsburg unification of, 18, 155–59;
urban system of, 201
Nieuwpoort, 219
Normandy, 113
North, Douglass, 2, 102, 126, 141, 156, 167, 198, 199
North Sea, 15, 165
Norway, 62
notaries, 89–94, 98, 99, 101, 137, 203;
authentication of private documents by, 91;
deeds drafted by as legal proof, 98;
and registration of partnerships in France, 99
Novgorod, 44
Nuremberg, 163;
merchants from, 26n39, 86, 143
oaths, 80, 86n61, 88, 96, 97, 99, 170n4. See also legal proof
Occo, Pompejus, 35
Ogilvie, Sheilagh, 2, 8, 19
Old Castile, 177, 217
Olson, Mancur, 5n17, 140n168
open access institutions. See inclusive institutions
oral testimonies, 88, 91, 97, 99
ordeals, 88
Ottoman Empire, 201
Oude Compagnie, 66
Overijssel, 156
Pacioli, Luca, Summa de Arithmetica, 100
panden, 55
paper proof. See legal proof
Paris, 20, 85, 102, 204
Parma, Duke of. See Farnese, Alexander
partenrederij, 189, 196
partnerships, 17, 62, 65, 76, 83–87, 94, 96, 99, 106–7, 112, 188, 203
periodic trade. See fairs
permanent markets, 10, 12, 30, 32, 42–43, 153, 196, 198. See also residence, permanent
Peruzzi family, 85
Philip II, King of Spain, 1, 18, 135, 137, 142;
and Antwerp, 159, 160, 162, 168, 206;
and the Dutch Revolt, 159–62;
and England, 55;
and France, 160, 163
Philip III, King of Spain, 224
Philip the Bold, Count of Flanders, 144, 150, 154, 215
Philip the Fair, 28, 155–56
Philip the Good, 24, 115, 119, 127, 129, 154, 156, 217
Phoonsen, Johannes, Wissel-Styl tot Amsterdam, 126
(p.290) Piacenza, merchants from, 23
piracy/pirates, 141, 185, 211, 219, 222, 226;
and Barbary Coast, 166;
and Dutch Republic, 165, 167;
and England, 187, 214, 224–25;
and Flanders, 105, 166, 173, 177, 219;
and France, 157, 218, 222;
and German Hanse, 134, 218;
and Holland, 221;
and Scotland, 173;
and Spain, 148, 214, 217;
Vitalienbrüder as, 216. See also privateering/privateers; violence
Pisa, merchants from, 218
Plantijn, Christoffel, 86
Poland, 36, 62, 63, 65
policing:
of local markets, 44, 45, 145, 167;
of rivers and roads, 144, 147, 163
political fragmentation, 2, 3, 7, 15, 18, 134, 141, 145, 167, 198, 206, 207
Portinari, Tomaso, 174, 175, 220
Portugal, 15, 25, 31, 60;
and Asia, 39, 166;
royal factor in Antwerp, 29
Portuguese Jews, 39, 63, 122, 159
Portuguese merchants, 79, 169, 175, 183, 187;
in Amsterdam, 1, 38, 39, 83, 106, 108, 121, 122, 123, 125;
in Antwerp, 29, 32, 33, 54, 56, 97, 117, 136–37, 155;
and arbitration, 106, 107, 108;
in Bruges, 21, 23, 25, 45, 114, 115, 155, 176;
and commercial conflicts, 119, 125, 127, 128, 132;
compensation for, 127, 128, 185;
consular jurisdiction of, 24, 25, 117;
and Dutch Revolt, 136, 137, 225, 226;
and Flemish Revolt, 155;
and Great Council of Malines, 127, 128;
and Hoge Raad van Holland en Zeeland, 132;
and marine insurance, 119, 194–95;
and notaries, 92–94;
safe-conducts for, 143;
and violence, 150, 193, 224–26
price currents:
in Amsterdam, 61, 73–74, 195;
in Antwerp, 57, 82
privateering/privateers, 141, 145, 149, 218, 219, 220;
and arbiters, 107;
and Bruges, 147;
and Burgundy, 183;
compensation for, 177, 181–86;
and Denmark, 222;
and Dutch Republic, 167, 193, 225;
and England, 214;
and Flanders, 163, 177, 216;
frequency of, 146;
and German Hanse, 34, 134, 172, 180, 193;
and Holland, 34, 156, 161, 187, 193, 223;
and marine insurance, 192, 193, 195, 196;
and prize cases, 181–86;
and Scotland, 182–83, 193, 218;
and Spain, 148, 177, 193, 214, 217, 225;
Vitalienbrüder as, 147–48, 216;
and Zeeland, 187. See also risks; violence
privileges, 12, 19, 29, 51, 176n26, 196, 199;
and Amsterdam, 38–40, 121;
and Antwerp, 26–29, 40, 114–15, 153, 171, 174, 180, 199, 205;
and Bruges, 22–23, 29, 40, 51, 109, 150, 152, 155, 178, 199, 205;
and English merchants, 16, 56n70, 106, 114–15, 153, 171, 174;
and Florentine merchants, 115;
and French merchants, 16;
and German merchants, 16, 46n15, 51, 109, 113, 115, 133, 144, 171–80;
and Italian merchants, 16;
and Portuguese merchants, 16, 39;
and Scottish merchants, 183;
and Spanish merchants, 16, 171;
and urban competition, 10, 16, 20, 197
prize cases, 128, 170, 181–86. See also Admiralty Courts
property, protection of, 8, 171–76;
by Charles V, 155–58;
by cities, 10, 141–42, 153, 158n72, 174, 207;
by Count of Holland, 144, 150;
by Counts of Flanders, 113, 143, 144, 149, 150;
by Dukes of Burgundy, 28, 34, 144, 150, 183;
by Dutch Republic, 2, 163–64, 167, 198;
in England, 22, 141, 143;
in France, 22, 141, 143, 150;
by home rulers, 147, 148, 157, 175, 186, 191;
and Maximilian I, 28;
by rulers, 7, 8, 12, 18, 143, 167, 168, 174, 181–83;
and state formation, 2, 5, 141, 167, 198. See also convoys; escorts, armed; policing; safe-conducts
property, seizure of, 108, 144, 172, 176, 193;
and debt collection, 8, 23, 50–51, 56, 70, 79, 93, 103, 117, 118, 123, 144, 171, 178n45;
in reprisal of violence, 54, 103, 143, 144, 148, 149, 150, 161, 171, 175, 177, 178n45, 179, 181, 182, 183, 211;
and tax collection, 183
property rights institutions, 5, 12, 19, 207
Protestants, 32, 36, 158–59, 160, 223
proxies, 93, 99, 101, 170
(p.291) quittances, 88
registration:
in Amsterdam, 35, 89, 92;
in Antwerp, 17, 52, 57, 89, 91, 92, 120–21;
in Bruges, 17, 85, 89, 94, 106;
and conflict resolution, 106, 116;
by consuls, 17, 83n38, 85;
of debt and equity contracts, 88–89, 93–94, 99, 101;
in France, 94, 99;
of insurance policies, 57, 120–21;
by notaries, 92, 93, 94, 101, 106;
of sales and overseas shipments, 17. See also account books; correspondence
religion, 8, 32, 39, 141, 160, 161
Requesens y Zúñiga, Luis de, 161
residence, permanent, 16, 43, 74, 102, 202, 203;
in Amsterdam, 35, 36, 38, 43, 57, 58, 59, 60, 70;
in Antwerp, 32, 33, 38, 43, 54, 56;
in Bruges, 17, 32, 38, 42, 43, 50–51, 152;
and decline of boycotts, 170;
and hostellers, 16, 43;
and information networks, 16, 43
Rhineland, 25, 27, 42
risks, 169, 197;
sharing of, 18, 134, 186, 207;
spreading of, 18, 186–89, 207;
transfer of, 18, 186, 189, 190–96, 207. See also compensation; violence
Robinson, James, 2, 5, 6, 167, 198
Rôles d’Oléron, 113, 133, 134
Roman law, 8, 136, 138
Rome, merchants from, 1, 22
Rostock, 216
Rotterdam, 39, 184
Rouen, 1, 37
rulers, 2–15, 198–209;
adaptive efficiency of, 202;
centralizing efforts of, 142;
and commercial cities, 3, 10, 12;
and footloose merchants, 41, 168, 205–7;
and institutional arrangements, 3, 5, 7, 14–15, 202;
and merchant guilds, 2, 9;
protection of property by, 2, 5, 7, 8, 12, 18, 141, 143, 167, 168, 174, 181–83, 198;
use of force, 5, 14. See also cities; government, central
Russia, 62, 165
safe-conducts, 12, 22, 121, 143, 146, 180, 189, 205;
and Amsterdam, 1;
and Antwerp, 28, 157, 205;
and Bruges, 23, 143, 172, 205;
and Count of Flanders, 20, 113, 143;
and Duke of Brabant, 26. See also risks; violence
Saint-Jean d’Angély, merchants from, 113, 143
Savary, Jacques, Ordonnances sur le Commerce de Negotians & Marchands, 138
Saxony, merchants from, 216
Scabini Flandriae, 20, 181
Scheldt River, 1, 37, 168
Scotland, 25, 216, 219, 222
Scottish merchants, 185, 215;
in Bruges, 21, 23, 24, 25, 45, 110;
and Great Council of Malines, 182–83;
safe-conducts for, 143, 150;
and Zeeland, 30
Sea Beggars, 161, 194
sea loans (foenus nauticum), 190, 191
seasonal trade:
in Antwerp, 30, 43;
in Bruges, 22, 24, 43, 113, 152. See also fairs
Shanghai, 201
shipmasters, 35, 94, 95, 107, 113, 134, 147, 190, 191, 211
ships, 216;
division of cargoes between, 186–88, 196;
protection of, 10, 147, 157, 166–67, 191, 195;
shared ownership of, 65–66, 94, 134, 188–89, 195
shipwrecks, 23, 107, 186, 188
Sigismund (German king), 104
Sluis, 22, 149, 193, 212, 214–15;
assault on Germans in, 174, 179, 219;
and Flemish Revolt, 28, 219–20;
water bailiff of, 147, 181
Smith, Adam, 5
societas maris, 83
Southampton, 193
Spain, 4, 22, 33, 36, 145, 163, 223;
and colonialism, 15;
commercial cities in, 6;
and Dukes of Burgundy, 177;
and Dutch Republic, 1, 38, 162, 163, 166, 168;
and Dutch Revolt, 1, 31, 33, 37, 162, 224–26;
embargoes by, 189;
and England, 161, 162;
and France, 162;
mercantile courts in, 119, 126;
silver from, 158, 223;
wool trade, 22, 33, 147. See also Castile
Spanish Fury (1576), 33, 162, 223
Spanish merchants, 95, 215;
in Antwerp, 32, 33, 54, 158;
and arbitration, 106;
boycotts by, 152, 170, 171, 175–77, (p.292) 205;
in Bruges, 23, 25, 52n55, 110, 156, 170–71, 175–77, 194;
compensation for, 170, 171;
consular jurisdiction of, 120, 147;
and German Hanse, 179;
and Great Council of Malines, 182;
and notaries, 92;
privileges for, 16;
removal from Bruges, 151, 152, 170–71, 211;
safe-conducts for, 171. See also Castilian merchants
Speyer, Peace of (1544), 59, 157
spot markets, 16, 48, 50, 51, 102, 140
Stade, 32, 161, 223
staple:
of English wool in Antwerp, 21;
of Flemish textiles in Bruges, 22;
of French wine in Middelburg, 34n91;
of Italian alum in Antwerp, 29;
of Portuguese pepper in Antwerp, 29;
of Spanish wool in Bruges, 30, 33, 120
Staple Company, Calais, 24, 176
staple rights:
of Company of Merchant Adventurers, 196;
of German Hanse in Bruges, 27, 113, 171, 173, 174, 180;
of Malines, 153;
of Scottish merchants, 30
Stasavage, David, 199
states, 2, 3, 12;
and creation of inclusive institutions, 198–99;
as legislator and third-party enforcer, 102;
and safety of merchants, 2, 5, 141, 167, 198
States General of the Dutch Republic. See Dutch Republic
St. Omer, merchants from, 88
Stracca, Benvenuto, De Mercature, 138
Strait of Gibraltar, 165, 166
Sweden, 62, 187, 216
tally, 88
taxation, 3, 10, 12, 14, 21, 29, 44, 182, 186;
and Amsterdam, 36, 58, 124, 164–66;
and Antwerp, 29, 156–60;
and Bruges, 22, 29, 151–54, 211;
and exemptions for foreign merchants, 26, 29, 153, 165;
and Habsburg rulers, 156–60, 165
tax collectors, 182
textile industry, 24, 27–28, 29, 30, 55, 171, 172
Thijs, François, 62, 65, 67, 78, 81
Thijs, Hans, 43, 61–70, 78, 80–82, 87, 163, 195
Torhout, fairs of, 20
Tournai, 156
town clerks, 89, 91, 203
town magistrates. See government, local
town secretaries, 93n94, 94, 101
Trip family, 169
Trivellato, Francesca, 82
turben, 70, 98, 99, 101, 135, 137
Twelve Years’ Truce, 225
United Provinces. See Dutch Republic (United Provinces)
urban competition, 3–4, 10–15, 19, 25–26, 40;
and Amsterdam, 1, 11, 20, 25, 37, 39–41;
and Antwerp, 20, 26–28, 32, 37, 50, 56, 57, 143–44, 178;
and Bergen-op-Zoom, 26–28, 178;
and boycotts, 18, 169, 176, 196;
and Bruges, 4, 20, 25–28, 40–41, 50;
and collaboration between cities, 4, 19, 143–44, 205;
and footloose merchants, 41, 169, 201, 205–7;
and German Hanse, 141;
in Germany, 4n15, 206;
and growth of trade, 206–9;
and inclusive institutions, 198, 205, 206, 207;
and institutional adaptation, 3, 4, 19–20, 42–44, 198, 200, 204, 207;
and institutional convergence, 204;
and London, 25, 200, 206;
in Mediterranean, 200, 206;
and merchant guilds, 9;
negative effects of, 19–20, 208;
and safety of merchants, 167, 206, 207;
and state formation, 15, 41, 205
urban magistrates. See Amsterdam; Antwerp; Bruges; government, local
urban networks, 13, 15, 19, 25, 142–43, 160, 167, 168, 201, 203–4, 205;
in Brabant, 31, 143–44, 205;
in Flanders, 22
Utrecht, 156, 174, 215
Veckinchusen, Hildebrand, 50, 81, 83–84, 104
Veere, Admiralty Court in, 183–84
vending locations, 42–45, 51–52, 54–58, 71, 74–75, 198, 202. See also Exchange; hostellers/hostels
Venedischer Handelsgesellschaft, 84
Venetian merchants, 76, 218;
in Antwerp, 117, 171, 176, 194;
in Bruges, 21–23, (p.293) 25, 44n8, 45, 114, 142, 147, 150, 171, 186;
consular jurisdiction of, 114, 117;
and marine insurance, 194;
and risk management, 186
Venezuela, 190
Venice, 2, 3, 4, 6, 13, 25, 42, 77, 83, 96, 138, 141, 190, 191, 201, 208;
and Barbary pirates, 166;
English and Dutch merchants in, 209;
Fondaco dei Tedeschi, 55;
galley fleets from, 22, 142, 147, 171, 192, 193, 213
Vereenigde Oost-Indische Companie (VOC;
Dutch East India Company), 39, 66, 67, 130, 132, 133, 166, 207
violence, 1, 76;
avoidance of, 18, 205–6;
effect of competition in reducing, 14, 206, 207;
incidence of, 14, 146, 152, 169, 212–26;
and marine insurance, 191, 192, 193;
profits despite, 169;
by public officials, 182–83;
Visby, maritime law of, 35, 113, 117, 123, 135, 137
Vitalienbrüder, 147–48, 216
Wallis, John, 2
Wallony, merchants from, 39, 60, 196
war, 14, 145, 167, 170;
of Burgundy with England, 147, 150, 174, 177–78, 219;
of Burgundy with France, 170, 220;
of Burgundy with Spain, 170, 177;
of Dutch Republic with Spain, 1, 38;
of England with France, 148, 150, 153, 192, 212–13, 216, 219, 223;
of Flanders with Brabant, 213;
of Flanders with France, 213;
of German Hanse with Castile, 218;
of Habsburg monarchy with France, 156, 160, 170;
restricted travel during, 192–93. See also Dutch Revolt; Hundred Years’ War
Watergeuzen, 36
weapons, merchants’ right to carry, 144–45
weights and measures, international standard for, 204
Weingast, Barry R., 2, 14
Westindische Compagnie (WIC;
Dutch West India Company), 166
Westphalia, merchants from, 25, 54
Westrozebeke, Battle of, 154, 215, 1382)
Widerlegung (wederlegginge), 83–84, 89, 90
William of Orange, 160, 161, 165, 36–37
wills, 91, 125, 130
Wismar, 216
Wisselbank. See under Amsterdam
wool trade, 22, 24, 30, 33, 111, 120, 147, 171–72, 193, 194, 211, 212
Ympyn, Jan, 96, 100
Ypres, 88–89, 151;
fairs of, 20
Zeeland, 1, 144, 154, 164, 168, 178, 198, 214;
and Dutch Revolt, 161, 162, 223;
merchants from, 211, 215;
privateers from, 147, 215–16, 218;
Scottish staple removed to, 30
Zwolle, 61
Zwyn, 20, 215