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Power to the PeopleEnergy in Europe over the Last Five Centuries$
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Astrid Kander, Paolo Malanima, and Paul Warde

Print publication date: 2014

Print ISBN-13: 9780691143620

Published to Princeton Scholarship Online: October 2017

DOI: 10.23943/princeton/9780691143620.001.0001

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Energy Transitions in the Twentieth Century

Energy Transitions in the Twentieth Century

(p.251) Chapter Eight Energy Transitions in the Twentieth Century
Power to the People

Malanima Paolo

Astrid Kander

Paul Warde

Princeton University Press

This chapter examines energy transitions in twentieth-century Europe. It begins with a discussion of the rise in energy consumption in the twentieth century and the breakthrough of oil and electricity. These developments display similarities and differences with the previous century, that of the first industrial revolution, where coal came to dominate the scene and released the economy from the constraints of the organic economy. As energy carriers, oil and electricity changed the relative positioning of European countries. The chapter proceeds by decomposing the energy consumption into the effects from population increase, income increase, and energy intensity changes. It also considers the new geography of energy supply, nuclear energy and other primary sources for electricity generation, drivers of carbon dioxide emissions, food consumption in the twentieth century, and higher quality of energy and higher efficiency in energy use.

Keywords:   energy transitions, Europe, energy consumption, oil, electricity, energy supply, nuclear energy, electricity generation, carbon dioxide emissions, food consumption

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