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Beautiful Game TheoryHow Soccer Can Help Economics$
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Ignacio Palacios-Huerta

Print publication date: 2014

Print ISBN-13: 9780691144023

Published to Princeton Scholarship Online: October 2017

DOI: 10.23943/princeton/9780691144023.001.0001

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Psychological Pressure on the Field and Elsewhere

Psychological Pressure on the Field and Elsewhere

Chapter:
(p.68) 5 Psychological Pressure on the Field and Elsewhere
Source:
Beautiful Game Theory
Author(s):

Ignacio Palacios-Huerta

Publisher:
Princeton University Press
DOI:10.23943/princeton/9780691144023.003.0006

This chapter describes a novel behavioral bias not previously documented in a competitive situation: psychological pressure in a dynamic competitive environment arising from the state of the competition. Drawing on a data set comprising 1,001 penalty shoot-outs with 10,431 penalty kicks over the period 1970–2013, it collects information on the date of every shoot-out of every competition, the identity of the teams kicking first and second, the final outcome of the shoot-out, the outcomes of each of the kicks in the sequence, the geographical location of the game (that is, whether the game was played in a home ground, a visiting ground, or in a neutral field); and variables that measure the quality of the teams, such as their previous experience in shoot-outs, their official FIFA and UEFA rankings (for national teams), and the division, category, and standings (for club teams).

Keywords:   behavioral bias, psychological pressure, competition, competitive games, penalty kicks, penalty shoot-outs

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