This chapter analyzes how the adaptive landscape concept can be extended from a single population in a single environment to multiple populations in multiple environments. Specifically, different environments produce different fitness peaks and divergent selection then drives different populations toward those different peaks. The chapter outlines methods for inferring adaptive divergence with respect to both phenotypes and fitness. It then turns to a review of empirical data informing several key questions about adaptive divergence in nature, including how prevalent and strong it is, how many peaks adaptive landscapes have, how predictable it is (parallel and convergent evolution), and what the role of sexual selection is in modifying adaptive divergence.
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