This chapter examines how populations in different environments can fall at different stages along a continuum of progress toward ecological speciation. It traces how variation can be used to infer ecological speciation through either of two general approaches: (1) integrated signatures of reproductive isolation based on measures of gene flow, and (2) confirmation of the ecological basis of reproductive barriers. The chapter also addresses the rapidity of ecological speciation (rapid speciation), at what point progress toward ecological speciation becomes irreversible (speciation reversal), to what extent ecological speciation is driven by competitive (adaptive speciation) or reproductive (reinforcement) interactions, and how many traits (magic traits) and selective pressures (dimensionality) are involved.
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