This chapter begins with an outline of mathematical approaches for evaluating how genotypes/phenotypes might alter community structure, which points to predictions about when such effects should be strongest in nature. It then summarizes common approaches for empirical work, which might be broadly classed as (1) the effects of genotypes/phenotypes within and among populations, and (2) the year-by-year correspondence between phenotypic change and community change. These key questions examine the current state of knowledge for two classic applications of evolutionary thinking to community theory: predator–prey interactions and competition. The chapter also considers the importance of intraspecific genetic diversity for community structure, which echoes and extends the intense interest surrounding the effects of interspecific diversity.
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