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Europe and the Islamic WorldA History$
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John Tolan, Henry Laurens, and Gilles Veinstein

Print publication date: 2012

Print ISBN-13: 9780691147055

Published to Princeton Scholarship Online: October 2017

DOI: 10.23943/princeton/9780691147055.001.0001

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Civilization or Conquest?

Civilization or Conquest?

(p.277) Chapter 12 Civilization or Conquest?
Europe and the Islamic World

John Tolan

Gilles Veinstein

Henry Laurens

, Jane Marie Todd
Princeton University Press

This chapter considers how, during the nineteenth century, the Muslim regions that succeeded in preserving formal independence were caught up in a race between European encroachment or interference and the establishment of a strong state, which also had to call on the Europeans for assistance. Because of that dynamic of change, it is difficult to determine what was borrowed pure and simple and what was the result of evolutionary synchronism: the complex question of the emancipation of non-Muslims in Islamic territory is a case in point. Other regions had to face the “colonial night” of European domination, which in certain places eventually adopted the form of settlement colonies. However, the Muslim world was far from passive when confronted with Europe's multifaceted advance. It entered a cycle of accelerated transformation, culminating in the adoption of the nationality principle as the new mode of social organization.

Keywords:   nationality principle, emancipation, settlement colonies, Algeria, Greece, Syria, Egypt, European conquest, industrial revolution, modern state

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