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Benford's LawTheory and Applications$
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Steven J. Miller

Print publication date: 2015

Print ISBN-13: 9780691147611

Published to Princeton Scholarship Online: October 2017

DOI: 10.23943/princeton/9780691147611.001.0001

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Complementing Benfordʼs Law for Small N: A Local Bootstrap

Complementing Benfordʼs Law for Small N: A Local Bootstrap

(p.223) Chapter Ten Complementing Benfordʼs Law for Small N: A Local Bootstrap
Benford's Law

Boudewijn F. Roukema

Princeton University Press

This chapter analyzes the initially published results of the 2009 Iranian presidential elections. It applies a small N statistical first-digit frequency test that is as nonparametric as possible in a way that leaves no doubt regarding “how close” the observed system should be to a Benford's law limit. The approach this chapter studies is a local bootstrap model, designed to closely mimic the data in a way that should statistically reproduce its first-digit distributions, given some simple hypotheses about the general behavior of the system. This method was calibrated on several presidential-election first rounds from before 2009 and applied to the 2009 Iranian election.

Keywords:   2009 presidential elections, Iranian presidential elections, Iranian election, local boostrap model, Benford's law limit, first-digit frequency

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