This chapter focuses on the urbanist discussions of the late 1920s and early 1930s in which city-building was articulated as a form of total planning applied to problems of social modernity. The 1920s were a fertile period of experimentation with the reconstruction of daily life, and leading figures of the architectural avant-garde explored the possibility that architecture could be an instrument for generating new forms of sociality and, ultimately, men and women of a new type. However, by the late 1920s these discussions were being reoriented by the turn toward forced industrialization. Meanwhile, Soviet discussions of settlement in the early 1930s began to treat population as a mass of human individuals whose labor could be instrumentally deployed in production.
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