This chapter explores the political implications of differences in social space. The distinction between a “local” or “global” orientation systematically affects political behavior both within and across parties. Borrowing a concept from 1950s sociology—but operationalizing it differently—this chapter demonstrates that “cosmopolitanism” affects vote choice and is not well measured by typical demographic or attitudinal controls routinely included in vote models. Further, the chapter shows that cosmopolitanism is not accounted for by mainstay geographic indicators such as the regional marker for South or non-South. Cosmopolitanism is a mix of attributes, local environment, and opportunity, and the means of taking advantage of those opportunities. But it is measured here through a series of behaviors (or self-reports of behaviors) that indicate the presence or absence of a cosmopolitan orientation.
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