This epilogue discusses the European powers' humanitarian interventions from the interwar period and since 1989. It first considers the massacres, atrocities, and other abuses committed during World War I and World War II before looking at interventions during the Cold War (1945–1989). It then compares instances of humanitarian intervention and nonintervention since 1989 with those of the nineteenth century. It also examines humanitarian intervention as a means of addressing threats to international peace and security, nineteenth-century humanitarian interventions as ex post facto events with unexceptional outcomes and unintended consequences, and the transformation of intervention from one focused on short-term rescue to one focused on long-term protection of victims of massacres and atrocities. Finally, the chapter explores public opinion regarding humanitarian intervention, the emergence of “new humanitarianism,” and the United Nations's The Responsibility to Protect (R2P) document.
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