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How We HopeA Moral Psychology$
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Adrienne M. Martin

Print publication date: 2013

Print ISBN-13: 9780691151526

Published to Princeton Scholarship Online: October 2017

DOI: 10.23943/princeton/9780691151526.001.0001

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Beyond the Orthodox Definition of Hope

Beyond the Orthodox Definition of Hope

(p.11) 1 Beyond the Orthodox Definition of Hope
How We Hope

Adrienne M. Martin

Princeton University Press

This chapter presents a series of challenge cases for the orthodox definition of hope—cases that show this definition cannot distinguish strong hopes for highly unlikely outcomes from either weaker hopes or even despair directed at those outcomes. To truly capture what it is to “hope against hope,” we need to supplement the orthodox definition. The chapter then considers and rejects three recent proposals about how to supplement the definition. Although these three proposals—from Philip Pettit, Luc Bovens, and Ariel Meirav—are not ultimately successful, this chapter argues that there are important lessons we should take from each. In light of these lessons, the chapter proposes the incorporation analysis of hope, whereby hoping for an outcome is a distinctive way of treating one's own attitudes toward the outcome.

Keywords:   orthodox definition, incorporation analysis, challenge cases, hope against hope, Philip Pettit, Luc Bovens, Ariel Meirav

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