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Visual Ecology$
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Thomas W. Cronin, Sönke Johnsen, N. Justin Marshall, and Eric J. Warrant

Print publication date: 2014

Print ISBN-13: 9780691151847

Published to Princeton Scholarship Online: October 2017

DOI: 10.23943/princeton/9780691151847.001.0001

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The Eye Designs of the Animal Kingdom

The Eye Designs of the Animal Kingdom

(p.91) 5 The Eye Designs of the Animal Kingdom
Visual Ecology

Thomas W. Cronin

Sönke Johnsen

N. Justin Marshall

Eric J. Warrant

Princeton University Press

This chapter studies the eye designs of the animal kingdom. Today, there are ten generally recognized optical eye types that have evolved in various branches of the animal kingdom. Whereas vertebrates possess only one of them, invertebrates possess all ten, from simple assemblies of photoreceptors that underlie phototaxis to advanced compound and camera eyes that support a sophisticated range of visual behaviors. Some invertebrates even possess several eyes of more than one type. The chapter identifies some of these eye types in the context of sensitivity and resolution, namely, pigment-pit eyes, compound eyes, and camera eyes. The last of these are characteristic of the vertebrates, although they are also commonplace among the invertebrates. The remaining nine eye types are found only within the invertebrates.

Keywords:   eye designs, animal kingdom, vertebrates, invertebrates, photoreceptors, phototaxis, visual behaviors

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