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Three Worlds of ReliefRace, Immigration, and the American Welfare State from the Progressive Era to the New Deal$
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Cybelle Fox

Print publication date: 2012

Print ISBN-13: 9780691152233

Published to Princeton Scholarship Online: October 2017

DOI: 10.23943/princeton/9780691152233.001.0001

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A Fair Deal or a Raw Deal?

A Fair Deal or a Raw Deal?

(p.188) Chapter 8 A Fair Deal or a Raw Deal?
Three Worlds of Relief

Cybelle Fox

Princeton University Press

This chapter focuses on the first New Deal and access to Federal Emergency Relief, as well as the Civilian Conservation Corps, the Public Works Administration, and the Civil Works Administration. Despite the New Deal's nationalizing reforms, intended largely to standardize relief policies across the country, local political economies and racial regimes continued to influence the administration of relief. Like blacks, Mexicans gained significantly greater access to relief during the New Deal, although they continued to face racial discrimination at the local level. Citizenship barriers were also typically strongest for local public work programs out West, and Mexican Americans were sometimes wrongly denied work relief on the assumption that they were non-citizens. The largest relief program during the first New Deal was the Federal Emergency Relief Administration (FERA), which brought blacks and Mexicans unprecedented access to relief.

Keywords:   New Deal, Federal Emergency Relief Administration, Civilian Conservation Corps, Public Works Administration, Civil Works Administration, relief policies, black immigrants, Mexican immigrants, racial discrimination, citizenship

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