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Monitoring DemocracyWhen International Election Observation Works, and Why It Often Fails$
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Judith G. Kelley

Print publication date: 2012

Print ISBN-13: 9780691152776

Published to Princeton Scholarship Online: October 2017

DOI: 10.23943/princeton/9780691152776.001.0001

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Do Politicians Change Tactics to Evade Criticism?

Do Politicians Change Tactics to Evade Criticism?

(p.77) Chapter 5 Do Politicians Change Tactics to Evade Criticism?
Monitoring Democracy

Judith G. Kelley

Princeton University Press

This chapter considers whether the expected presence of international monitors causes politicians to switch to forms of manipulation that monitors may be less likely to denounce. It argues that for this to be plausible, risky and safer irregularities should be substitutes, not complements. In contrast, the analysis of the data suggests that risky forms of cheating are common in the presence of monitors; that safer and riskier irregularities are positively correlated; and that shifts away from risky irregularities do not coincide with shifts into safer forms. The examination of the individual countries where an election had displayed few risky but many safe forms of irregularities also suggests that these election patterns most likely were not the result of a shift in response to the presence of international monitors.

Keywords:   international monitors, politicians, risky irregularities, safer irregularities, election patterns, election cheating

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