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Phylogenies in EcologyA Guide to Concepts and Methods$
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Marc W. Cadotte and T. Jonathan Davies

Print publication date: 2016

Print ISBN-13: 9780691157689

Published to Princeton Scholarship Online: January 2018

DOI: 10.23943/princeton/9780691157689.001.0001

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Randomizations, Null Distributions, and Hypothesis Testing

Randomizations, Null Distributions, and Hypothesis Testing

Chapter:
(p.67) Chapter 4 Randomizations, Null Distributions, and Hypothesis Testing
Source:
Phylogenies in Ecology
Author(s):

Marc W. Cadotte

T. Jonathan Davies

Publisher:
Princeton University Press
DOI:10.23943/princeton/9780691157689.003.0004

This chapter examines the logic of null modeling for phylogenetic tests. Developing null expectations for community phylogenetic patterns from randomization procedures is the cornerstone for many ecophylogenetic analysis. The chapter advocates an approach that explicitly considers multiple randomizations to better understand what aspects of community and phylogenetic structure determine observed patterns. It first provides a brief historical overview of randomization tests in ecology, focusing on two important academic conflicts that highlight the need for using randomizations in ecological analysis: the first relates to species–genus ratios and competition between close relatives, and the second deals with co-occurrence patterns and competitive coexistence. It then explains how community data and phylogenetic data can be randomized, taking into account randomizations to test trait data, altering the phylogenetic tree, and other randomizations and inference issues. It also discusses some important considerations for constructing the species pool to be used in the randomization tests.

Keywords:   null model, phylogenetic tests, randomization, ecology, ecological analysis, species–genus ratios, competition, phylogenetic data, phylogenetic tree, species pool

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