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Phylogenies in EcologyA Guide to Concepts and Methods$
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Marc W. Cadotte and T. Jonathan Davies

Print publication date: 2016

Print ISBN-13: 9780691157689

Published to Princeton Scholarship Online: January 2018

DOI: 10.23943/princeton/9780691157689.001.0001

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The Geography of Speciation and Character Displacement

The Geography of Speciation and Character Displacement

Chapter:
(p.121) Chapter 6 The Geography of Speciation and Character Displacement
Source:
Phylogenies in Ecology
Author(s):

Marc W. Cadotte

T. Jonathan Davies

Publisher:
Princeton University Press
DOI:10.23943/princeton/9780691157689.003.0006

This chapter examines how phylogenetic approaches can address both ecological character displacement and community-wide character displacement. In ecological character displacement, selection might drive the divergence of ecological phenotypes by negative antagonistic interactions that reduce competition between sympatric populations utilizing the same resource base. In community-wide character displacement, ecological divergence occurs in allopatry, and competition filters species into communities based upon their trait values. The geographic distribution of a species reflects multiple factors, including its strength of phylogenetic niche conservatism and the geography of present day climate, its dispersal ability, and the history of speciation. This chapter considers the effect of competition in the native range, focusing on a scenario in which the evolution of species traits may itself be a product of species interactions. It shows that phylogenetic methods can additionally provide insights into how species interactions might shape trait evolution and even illuminate the process of speciation itself.

Keywords:   ecological character displacement, selection, competition, ecological divergence, allopatry, geography, speciation, evolution, traits

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