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Phylogenies in EcologyA Guide to Concepts and Methods$
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Marc W. Cadotte and T. Jonathan Davies

Print publication date: 2016

Print ISBN-13: 9780691157689

Published to Princeton Scholarship Online: January 2018

DOI: 10.23943/princeton/9780691157689.001.0001

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Speciation, Extinction, and the Distribution of Phylogenetic Diversity

Speciation, Extinction, and the Distribution of Phylogenetic Diversity

(p.172) Chapter 8 Speciation, Extinction, and the Distribution of Phylogenetic Diversity
Phylogenies in Ecology

Marc W. Cadotte

T. Jonathan Davies

Princeton University Press

This chapter examines the use of phylogenetic methods to explain macroevolutionary trends in speciation, extinction, and the distribution of phylogenetic diversity across space and through time. The diversity of life is unevenly distributed across the globe. Species richness tends to be higher at lower latitudes and elevations, and the distribution of life forms also varies across space. For example, Foster's rule suggests that on islands small species evolve to become bigger, while large species evolve to become smaller. Equally, the distribution of evolutionary history shows large spatial variation, reflecting the histories of speciation, extinction, and dispersal. This chapter first considers how large, global phylogenies make it possible to map the distribution of phylogenetic diversity and develop a conservation strategy to maximize coverage of the tree of life. It then discusses the variation in diversification across spatiotemporal gradients and shows that phylogenetic diversity covaries significantly with taxonomic richness.

Keywords:   phylogenetic methods, macroevolution, speciation, extinction, phylogenetic diversity, species richness, dispersal, conservation, tree of life, diversification

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