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Before and After MuhammadThe First Millennium Refocused$
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Garth Fowden

Print publication date: 2013

Print ISBN-13: 9780691158532

Published to Princeton Scholarship Online: October 2017

DOI: 10.23943/princeton/9780691158532.001.0001

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Viewpoints Around 1000

Viewpoints Around 1000

Ṭūs, Baṣra, Baghdad, Pisa

(p.198) 7 Viewpoints Around 1000
Before and After Muhammad

Garth Fowden

Princeton University Press

This chapter considers the years around 1000 as a viewing point from which to consolidate the argument that emphasizes the First Millennium's distinctiveness. It explores four themes broached earlier in the book, associating each one with a particular city. They are: Tūs, which stands for Iran; Basra, which stands for the encyclopedic erudition of the Brethren of Purity at the end of the tenth century, drawing on the whole heritage of the First Millennium to offer a way of salvation to the Muslim soul; Baghdad, which stands for the Abbasid capital's learned circles and their openness to reasoned argument and Aristotelian logic to facilitate debate between members of the many different faiths espoused by its inhabitants; and Pisa, which stands for the eleventh-century reemergence of Latin Europe, still in the shadow of Islam but bursting already with aggressive energy and a new cultural self-confidence.

Keywords:   salvation, First Millennium, Tūs, Iran, Basra, Brethren of Purity, Baghdad, Pisa, Latin Europe, Islam

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