This chapter discusses the emergence of new pathogenic viruses due to human-driven changes. A virus can be defined as “emerging” if it meets one or more of the following conditions: an already known viral disease that spreads out in a new geographic area or population; an already known viral disease that spreads out in a new geographic area or population properties; and disease or virus that has been infecting humans for a long time but remained undetected until diagnosed for the first time due to increased surveillance or to new diagnostic tools. The remainder of the chapter covers emergent diseases linked to breakdown of the equilibrium between a species and its habitat (e.g., Hanta- or Arenaviruses); the genetics of adaptation to novel host; and epidemics of emergence.
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